- How to Lay Patio Pavers
- How to Lay Pavers in Patterns
- Thin Pavers Vs. Thick Driveway Pavers
- How to Install Pavers Over an Aggregate Patio
- How to Install Bullnose Pavers Around a Pool
- How to Fix Sunken Pavers
- How to Recycle Pavers
- How to Get Rid of the White Cloudiness on Pavers
- How to Seal Interlocking Pavers
- Brick Paver Size
- How to Clean Cement From Pavers
- How to Clean Driveway Pavers
- How to Eliminate Moss Growing Between Pavers
- How to Lay Brick Resin Patio Pavers
- How to Clean Pavers With Chemicals
- How to Kill Grass Between Pavers
- How to Install Pavers
When designing your landscape, consider installing brick pavers to create a sidewalk, steps or a patio area. This is a fun weekend project for any do-it-yourself enthusiast. Brick pavers are economical and add simple elegance to any setting.
First decide how large an area you will need for a patio. Using measuring tape, measure from one corner to the next and place a stake at each end. Repeat measuring and placing stakes with the remaining corners.
Multiply width by length to determine your square footage. This will tell you how many brick pavers to purchase. For example: If your area is 14 by 14 feet, the total square footage will be 196 feet. If you have chosen a design that is one square foot per paver, the total pavers you would purchase would be 196.
Excavate the soil inside the desired area to a depth of four inches. Clear all rocks and debris from the excavated area. Using a level, make sure the base of the area is level and smooth throughout.
Using playground sand or masonry sand, fill the bottom of the area to a depth of two inches. Level and smooth this also.
Begin placing the pavers in your desired pattern. Many pavers can be interconnected to form different designs. You will want to nestle the pavers securely into the sand as close together as possible. Continue this until all pavers are placed.
Pour more sand over the top of your patio. Sweep the sand into all openings and crevices in and around the pavers. Lightly spray the patio and let it dry. This will cause the sand to settle between the pavers. You may need to repeat this step of sweeping sand across the surface, spraying it and letting it dry in order to ensure that the pavers are packed well. This will prevent the pavers from moving.
Draw a sketch of the desired shape for the paver pad on a piece of paper, and include any curves, bends or corners.
Draw square grids across the drawing with a ruler to indicate the pavers. Adjust the design as needed to fit the area. Review paver shapes at your local hardware store and adjust the grids as needed to obtain a basic idea of the overall pattern.
Purchase pavers that will fit into the basic pattern determined by the sketch. A paver pad does not have to be built using only one type of paver. Different patterns can be joined to create a single surface.
Lay out the pavers into the basic pattern prior to installing to determine the sizing needs and proper layout. Adjust the positioning of the pavers as needed to obtain the overall shape and pattern desired. Leave gaps wherever pavers will need to be cut for curves or angles. Cuts are made during the installation.
Thin pavers are roughly half the thickness and weight of thick pavers. This can make a big difference in two ways. If you are laying the driveway yourself, it will make the job much easier on your back. If you are having the driveway done, the contractor may charge more because of the heavier stone and extra work.
The thicker the concrete, the stronger it tends to be with everything else being equal. If your driveway is going to have heavy equipment or high traffic levels, then a thicker paver will be able to stand the increased pounding.
Concrete is typically purchased by volume, in most cases by the cubic yard. A thicker paver will require more material to make, so the cost for each will be higher than for a thinner version. Also, application of thick pavers usually requires the excavation of the existing driveway, while thin pavers can be laid directly on the current driveway so it tends to cost less for installation of thin pavers. If your budget is tight then a thinner option might be the best alternative.
Because of its weight, a thick paver will provide a more stable driveway than a thin paver. A thin paver may require more maintenance due to movement as a result of traffic or subsurface movement.
New vs. Existing
Thick pavers tend to be used more often with construction of new driveways, since they do not need the added stability of an existing driveway. Thin pavers are used more frequently with an existing driveway. They can be laid right over the existing structure.
Clean the aggregate surface of debris with a scrub brush and mild laundry detergent. If you see any grease stains, scrub them with a concrete stain remover. Hose off all soap and stain remover and let the surface dry.
Dry-lay your pavers over a section of the aggregate to practice the pattern you want to use, allowing a 1/2-inch of space in between each paver.
Mix four parts sand and one part cement with water until the mixture is stiff, not soupy.
Spread 1 inch of sand mortar over the aggregate with a trowel, enough to lay four pavers at a time.
Place the pavers into the mortar following your pattern and spaced ½-inch apart. Level the pavers using the handle of the trowel, and press them ½-inch into the mortar. Remove excess mortar and spatters from the pavers as you go using the trowel or a clean, moist cloth. Let the pavers set in the mortar for two days.
Mix grout in a bucket with one part sand, one part cement and a small amount of water so it is stiffer than the sand mortar.
Pack the grout between the pavers with the edge of the trowel, removing excess as you work. Use a concave jointing tool between the joints to make the surface smooth and neat.
Prepare the area for the installation of the pavers. Dig down through the soil at the same depth as the rest of your paver area. Include at least 2 inches for the layer of gravel and 3 to 4 inches for the layer of sand on top of the gravel.
Layer the area gravel and then cover that with sand until you fill the area you dug out. Run the compacting machine over the area to compact the sand and gravel down to prepare the layer for the installation of your pavers.
Line the edge of your pool with the pavers. Place each individual paver into the compacted layer of sand and gravel and tap them into place with the rubber mallet. Keep at least 1/8 inch of a joint between each bullnose paver and the field pavers for a joint. Make any necessary cuts with the angle grinder.
Pack the pavers in place. Fill the joints with sand. Layer the stones with sand and use your hand or a broom to sweep the sand across the pavers so that it falls into the joints between the stones. Leave at least 1/2-inch of sand on top of the stones and run the compactor over everything to lock them in place. Sweep the rest of the sand over the field pavers to flush up the joints.
Remove the old pavers. Wedge a crowbar under each paver and pry it out. If you are removing all of the pavers from a patio, note the size of the joint (gap) between pavers, then remove and lay the pavers out in the same order nearby so you can replace them quickly.
Level the ground beneath the pavers with a bow rake. Firmly compact the area with the tamper. Hold the tamper in front of you with both hands around the handle and tamp an area until the ground is hard; move to another section and repeat until the whole area has been compacted.
Spread 2 inches of crushed limestone over the area, level with the bow rake and compact firmly with the tamper. Spread 2 more inches of crushed limestone, level and compact.
Spread 1 to 2 inches of sand over the limestone and level with the back edge of the bow rake. Compact with the tamper.
Lay your pavers. Check each for level, and keep the joints consistent with the original layout.
Spread masonry sand across the patio. Sweep the sand into the joints and tamp gently with the tamper to allow the sand to settle. Continue adding, sweeping and tamping sand until your joints are full.
Create a flyer advertising free pavers, then post copies of the flyer at garden centers, landscape architecture schools, community gardens and other eco-friendly outposts in your area. If you've got stones in good condition, someone will want them. Alternately, cut out the waiting period by calling these places directly and arranging a drop-off when you've got someone interested.
Check with masonry companies in your area that may want to purchase the stones for reuse in aggregates. Also look for salvage yards and stone salvage companies near you. Contact companies until you find an interested party.
Search the website Earth911 for stone recycling near you. Type in "Stone" and your zip code. Call recyclers to find their open hours and drop-off policy, then take the stone to a matching recycler.
List your pavers at the Recyclers' Exchange, which maintains a listing of concrete, brick and stone aggregate for reuse. Describe the quantity and quality of the material, cite a price and your contact information, then wait to hear from interested parties. Arrange a sale at that time.
Fill your bucket halfway of water using your garden hose. Add a few drops of liquid dish detergent to the water, then add more water until the bucket is completely full.
Spray the pavers with your garden hose until they are thoroughly wet. Dip your brush into the bucket full of water and soap. Scrub the pavers vigorously with the brush.
Rinse the soapy water from the pavers by spraying them thoroughly with your garden hose until no more bubbles remain on the surface.
Repeat this process as often as you would like. The regular scrubbing of your pavers will help accelerate the disappearance of effervescence.
Hose down your pavers with a garden hose.
Create a sudsy solution of water and a household detergent in a bucket.
Pour the solution on top of the pavers and allow it to sit for 15 to 20 minutes. Scrub the solution into the pavers with a scrub brush or stiff-bristled broom. Rinse off your pavers with a hose.
Inspect your pavers for any deep stains that are still visible after the cleaning. Clean your pavers with a commercial brick or concrete stain remover. You can find these products at home improvement stores.
Inspect the joints between the pavers to see if they have the adequate about of sand. The sand, which helps hold the pavers in place, should be roughly halfway as high as the pavers. Fill in any joints that need sand. Place sand on the bricks and sweep it into the joints of any pavers that need it. The sand should reach halfway up the side of each paver. Sweep off any leftover debris or sand with a broom.
Use a paint roller to apply a coat of acrylic-based sealant over the pavers in long, smooth strokes. Spray the sealant on the pavers for large areas with a paint sprayer. Spread out any excess sealant over the pavers.
Allow the sealer to dry for the time recommended on the label. Add another layer of sealer after the first one has dried.
Standard brick pavers are rectangular blocks of clay, cement or natural stone. These pavers are used in a wide variety of projects. Eight inches in length, standard brick pavers are two and 1/4-inches high and 3 and 3/4 inches deep. They are most common for basketweave and straight-lay patterns but they can also be used in conjunction with other sizes of brick to create special patterns.
Mortarless pavers are 8 by 4 by 2 inches. They are specifically designed to be installed tightly next to one another, with dirt and sand filling the small gaps between. Similar to standard brick pavers, they can be used in a wide variety of projects ranging from sidewalks to walkways and can be laid alone or in conjunction with other brick types.
Square brick pavers come in a variety of sizes, although the standard size is 8 inches on a side by 2 inches thick. They can be laid alone similar to ceramic tile or in conjunction with rectangular pavers to create custom patterns.
Special decorative pavers come in a wide array of shapes and sizes. For example, some specialty pavers are made with a puzzle shape that interlocks with other pieces of the same type, while cobblestone patterns can include several sizes to create a contrasting look. Medallion pavers are also another example of custom-sized pavers.
Wash the affected area with a hose. If the cement hasn't set, it may wash right off the pavers.
Fill a bucket with water. Place a stiff-bristled scrub brush in the water, then draw this back and forth over the dribbles. Sometimes the abrasive action, combined with water, is enough to remove the unwanted concrete. This method should work on dried concrete for a few hours.
Mix oxalic acid with water and brush this onto the dried concrete. Allow the solution to sit on the pavers for a few minutes, then spray it off with a hose or pressure washer. While an oxalic acid solution helps dissolve concrete, it may result in staining or etching your pavers, depending on the material. Apply the solution to a small area first as a test patch, then rinse it away quickly and check for evidence of staining.
Allow the concrete dribbles to dry thoroughly. Chip away at the cement using a hammer or a brick. Because you are using pressure to chip away the dried concrete, you run a risk of damaging the pavers beneath. Attempt this method, referred to as "dry blasting," only if you can't remove the concrete with other methods.
Sweep the driveway pavers with a broom to remove loose dirt and debris. Use a garden hose to thoroughly wet down the pavers if they are brick. If the pavers are concrete, it is not necessary to wet them down with water.
Fill a large bucket with hot water. Add a few squirts of mild dish soap.
Dump the bucket of soapy water onto the driveway pavers. Use a push broom or mop to spread around the soapy water. Let the soapy water sit on the driveway pavers for 10 to 20 minutes.
Rinse the driveway with water from a pressure washer. Start at the back of the driveway and work your way toward the street. Move the wand over the surface using long, even strokes. Hold the spray tip about 12 inches from the driveway surface.
Mix equal parts bleach and water into a spray bottle.
Saturate the moss with the bleach mixture and allow it to soak for approximately five minutes.
Pressure wash the cracks between the pavers to remove all of the moss. This will also clean dirt and other debris from the pavers.
Allow the pavers to completely dry.
Spread polymeric sand in the cracks or spaces of the pavers. Spread the sand using a broom so that all of the crack are filled. Tap the sand with the broom to press the sand between the pavers. This will prevent moss from growing between the pavers.
Measure the area you want to pave carefully, using a measuring tape. Resin pavers cannot be easily cut like regular brick pavers. Make sure you have enough pavers to complete your project.
Level the ground in the project area and cover it with sand, gravel or loose ground material for best results, according to Home Depot. If using on grass, install pavers after a cropped mowing.
Press the pavers into place. Either use a mallet, or step on the pavers if the ground is soft enough.
Cover the pavers with sand, gravel or loose ground material, and sweep it into the joints with a broom to hold the pavers firmly in place.
Cleaning Bark, Leaves, Algae and Food Stains
Mix 1 part bleach with 4 parts water in a bucket. Swish it around to mix.
Dip a shop broom into the bucket, then scrub the dirty pavers with the solution.
Rinse the bleach and debris from the pavers with a garden hose.
Cleaning Stubborn Markings
Wet the pavers with the garden hose. Apply phosphoric acid cleaner, according to manufacturer's directions, to a 4- to 5-square-foot section of paver.
Scrub the acid-covered section thoroughly with the shop broom before rinsing immediately with fresh water.
Apply and scrub the phosphoric acid cleaner onto remaining sections of pavers, rinsing each section as you go.
Wait for a sunny day where the wind is not blowing more than 10 mph.
Fill a spray bottle with vinegar. It is the acid in the vinegar that works to kill the weeds.
Spray the vinegar over every piece of grass in between your pavers that you want to kill. The vinegar won't hurt your pavers, so you can be generous with it.
Repeat two days later if any grass in between the pavers remains.
Excavate the area where you plan to install the pavers to a depth of 7 inches to 9 inches for patios and walkways, and 9 inches to 11 inches for driveways. Dig at least 12 inches wider than the intended paved area.
Lay down processed gravel or crushed stone to form a base. Add in layers until the base is 3 inches to 3 1/2 inches from the top of the excavated area-generally 6 inches to 8 inches deep for a walkway or patio, or 8 to 12 inches for a driveway. Slope 1/8 inch for every foot in one direction to allow for water drainage.
Install plastic, aluminum or steel edge restraints to shape the area you plan to pave. Secure with 12-inch spikes driven into the ground. Cut restraints as needed in order to create the desired shape of the paved area.
Use piping or strips of wood for rails set 6 to 8 feet apart. Adjust height by packing sand underneath, and pack sand around rails to hold into place.
Pour sand between rails until sand is slightly higher, then run across with a 2 by 4 inch board to smooth. Fill in low spots, and repeat. Then remove rails and fill in indentations with sand. Trowel smooth.
Set pavers in desired pattern of the walkway, patio or driveway. Cut where necessary using a table saw with a diamond blade.
Use a plate compactor to press the pavers into the sand bed. Sweep dry sand into gaps between pavers, and compact.