- How to Repair a Deteriorating Concrete Block Foundation
- How to Repair a Hole in Foundation
- How to Seal a Concrete Foundation
- How to Fix a Deteriorating Concrete Foundation
- How do I Fix Foundation Problems?
- How to Waterproof a Basement From the Outside Foundation
- How to Install Brick Veneer on a Concrete Foundation
- How to Repair a Rock Foundation
- Advantages of a Concrete Foundation
- How Are Bridge Pylons Constructed?
- Foundation Repair for Manufactured Homes
- How to Measure a Concrete Pouring Foundation
- Building Code for Foundations in Wisconsin
- How to Seal Foundation Cracks
Concrete block foundations provide the stability and strength of the home. Over time, the block foundation can begin to deteriorate, possibly causing unsteady structure within the home. The repair simply involves filling any cracks, holes or other damage. Gather your supplies, set aside some time, and fix that foundation.
Place the chisel in the freezer in order to get it cold enough so it breaks through the existing concrete with ease.
Put on your safety gear, and then take the chisel out of the freezer to begin the repair.
Use the chisel and mallet to remove any jagged edges around the concrete block deterioration. Brush the concrete dust away with the wire brush.
Spray the area with a hose and then apply a thin layer of binding adhesive along the surface needing repair.
Prepare the concrete mix. Pour it into the bucket, stir with the dowel, and then apply it to the damage. Layer it onto the concrete damage using the putty knife. Wait 30 minutes in between layers so it can begin to harden between each application. Continue doing this until the fresh concrete has become even with the rest of the surface.
Let the repair harden and cure for 24 to 48 hours.
Put on all protective gear and then wipe away loose dirt and concrete dust with the wire brush.
Use the hose to wet the hole. Do not fill the hole with water. Simply mist the water around and inside the hole. Use a misting spray nozzle attachment if needed.
Cover the inside of the hole with bonding adhesive. Use the paintbrush to paint a thin layer of adhesive.
Pour the pre-made concrete into the bucket and stir with the dowel to recombine the elements. The different ingredients within the pre-made mix may have separated within its packaging and you need to recombine them before using the it.
Pour a small amount of sand into the hole. This will act as another bonding agent between the existing and new concrete.
Fill the hole with fresh mix. Use the putty knife to rim the inside of the hole and then fill it with the trowel. Pack it down tightly and then skim over the top with the edge of the trowel to remove the excess.
Let the patch cure and harden for 24 to 48 hours.
Carefully select the product that best suits your needs as there are many different products available to seal a concrete foundation. It is important to follow the manufacturer's directions closely when applying any concrete sealant. Prepare concrete surfaces to receive sealant. Use wire brush to clean surfaces. Clean all existing surfaces and ensure they are free from dirt, stains, grease, oil or loose material, etc. Use power washer if necessary. Fill all joints and repair cracks in concrete and allow to thoroughly dry. Make certain surfaces are completely dry before applying sealant.
Trowel grade or fill any voids such as wall-footing joints with an appropriate material (cement). Address any issues with remaining concrete forms, pipe penetrations, etc. to keep other trades from disturbing or possibly puncturing the sealant. Apply sealant with brush, roller or sprayer evenly over all surfaces maintaining consistency in thickness. Achieve minimum coverage of approximately 60 mils. Sealant should be applied as close to grade as possible. Extend coverage onto surfaces such as intersecting walls not designated to receive sealant for added protection. Protect form-tie holes below grade.
Provide protection to sealed surfaces from backfilling procedures. Select a protection method such as one inch thick expanded polystyrene foam board and adhesive that is compatible with the sealant applied. Do not allow traffic on foundation floor slabs treated with a sealer.
Chip away the deteriorated foundation with a chipping hammer until sound concrete is visible. Sound concrete consists of a smooth surface not easily chipped away.
Cut away extremely deteriorated concrete with a concrete saw until the interior reinforcement or metal bars are visible. Square or rectangular cuts are easier to repair than irregular shapes.
Prepare a proper bonding surface by abrasive blasting or pressure washing the surface. Blasting with a minimum of 3,000 psi removes any loose concrete, dust or contaminants. Vacuum any remaining particles.
Inspect the exposed reinforcements for rust or corrosion. Clean any surface defects with an abrasive blasting wire wheel.
Mix the concrete mortar with any additional additives. Additives are commonly used to color the mortar, reduce shrinkage or improve handling.
Prepare the foundation surface according to the mortar manufacturer’s directions. Bonding agents may be required to bond the existing concrete surface to the concrete mortar.
Apply the mortar mix with a trowel. Pack the mortar firmly and completely over the entire repaired surface.
Apply a concrete sealer to resist further surface damage.
Inspect the basement for signs of cracks in the foundation slab or the basement walls.
Contact a local structural engineer to assess the problem in the basement. Serious issues should be addressed by a professional. Ask the structural engineer to draw up a plan for repairing the foundation.
Ask the engineer about soil problems in the area, such as soil shrinking due to drought or soil erosion. This will cause sinking in the soil.
Hire a contractor to repair a foundation crack. Ensure the contractor follows the drawings of the structural engineer to prevent further issues. Ask to have weak concrete reinforced with steel rebar to prevent further sinking or cracks.
Brush off any dirt that may be coating the exterior of the foundation's walls.
Protect your hands with rubber gloves and your mouth and nose with a face mask.
Fill a paint tray with waterproofing sealant and position the tray near the exterior of the foundation's walls.
Dip a paint roller into the sealant and immediately begin rolling it onto the concrete surface. Make short, even passes with the roller to paint on a single, uniform coating. Apply the sealant so the coating will remain 2 feet above the ground once the foundation is back-filled. This will protect the foundation from moisture of the soil and will ensure that the basement below grade remains dry.
Wait a minimum of 24 hours before back-filling the soil over the coating.
Cut the stone veneer to size using a circular saw with a masonry blade attached to it. Pre-fit the stone to the wall to ensure you have all of the necessary pieces cut before you start attaching the veneer to the wall.
Mix your mortar with a small amount of quickset. Quickset will help the mortar adhere between the veneer and the concrete foundation and prevent slipping from the veneer.
Place a layer of mortar (approximately ½-inch to ¾-inch thick) onto the back of the veneer and then place the veneer on the top corner of the concrete foundation. Wiggle the veneer slightly to set the mortar and push against the veneer to squeeze out excess mortar.
Apply all of the remaining pieces of veneer as you did in step three but leave a ¼-inch gap between each veneer for grouting.
Press the mortar into the grooves with the tip of a wire brush or a wooden dowel rod an hour after you complete installing the veneer. Remove any excess mortar from the grooves. Brush any mortar splash off the veneer with a wire brush.
Fill a grout bag full of grout and then wrap the open end to apply pressure to the grout. Cut a 5/8-inch hole in the bottom corner of the grout bag and squeeze the grout from the bag into the grout lines on the veneer.
Remove any loose mortar between the stones with a screwdriver or pointing tool on the interior and exterior of the foundation. Pry away any materials already loose or that looks like it will flake loose in the next few years. Brush this material free from the rock foundation before using compressed air to blow any remaining materials free.
Fill the cleaned gaps between the stone on the interior with masonry mortar. Work 1-inch thick courses of mortar in the gaps attempting to fill all the voids. Add additional courses of mortar to fill the gap between the stones.
Follow the same procedures on the exterior of the foundation using a lime mortar.
Stability and Shifting
Concrete slabs are extremely stable, providing the home with increased support and firmness. It is cheaper than most foundation types to install due to its commonness and it gives the home a durable base. Shifting naturally occurs in most foundation types due to the movements of the earth and soil, but concrete does not shift as much, remaining in position beneath the house.
Protects Interior Furnishings
Concrete slabs are more water resistant than other types of foundations, providing protection from rising water tables. They are also fire resistant, which provides some protection for the upper levels of the house in case of exterior fire. In cases of interior fire sources, the concrete helps to contain the flames somewhat, providing the homeowner with an opportunity to evacuate the home in time.
This type of foundation provides excellent thermal conduction, storing the heat of the day and releasing it gradually at night when it is cooler. This explains why concrete floors always seem to be really cold to the touch, because they send the heat out into the room. This built-in feature will help prevent over-use of space heaters and furnaces, plus, concrete lasts much longer than other foundation types and is simple to maintain, providing it has been installed correctly.
When the location of the foundation is determined, steel walls are placed in the water to isolate the area to be excavated. The water is pumped out and excavation begins.
The central portion of the foundation consists of poured concrete reinforced with rebar. Large stones arranged in a trapezoidal configuration surround the concrete from the surface of the water down to the ground below the water's surface.
Building the Pylon
When the foundation is complete, the reinforcing system is framed for the pylon in vertical sections. The concrete is poured for each section as the reinforcing is built for the section above.
Noticing the Problem
A crack or break in your manufactured home's foundation may not be immediately noticeable. Periodically check around the home for any exterior damage. A weak spot in your floor or plumbing problems may indicate a problem with the foundation.
Hiring a Professional
Unless you are adept at repairing a foundation, do not attempt these repairs on your own. Incorrect foundation repairs could lead to further structural problems with your home. If you suspect a problem with your manufactured home's foundation, consult a professional contractor. The company you purchased your home from may be able to recommend local professionals with experience in manufactured homes.
Contact Your Insurance Agent
The cost for many foundation repairs will be covered by your homeowner's insurance. Contact your agent as soon as the problem is confirmed, before you begin repairs in case your agent needs to observe the problem first him- or herself. Keep in mind that your insurance agency may require that you use certain contractors, so consult it before hiring someone to complete repairs.
Measure the length and width of the foundation area. For odd-shaped foundations, measure each square or rectangular area.
Determine the depth of the foundation. Take a measurement from the foundation form or simply an estimate for recommended depth.
Multiply the length and width for each area measured. Multiply these figures by the depth of the foundation. Add these figures.
Divide the figure from Step 3 by 27 to determine the total cubic yards of concrete needed for the foundation.
Footings must be eight inches deep and four inches wide on each side of the foundation wall. The bottom of the footing must be at least 48 inches below the finished grade to prevent frost heaving.
Reinforced concrete walls are generally required to be at least eight inches thick. An approved damp-proofing material must be applied to the exterior surface of all masonry foundation walls.
If you have a basement foundation with a concrete floor, the concrete must be at least three inches thick. If the floor area has clay soil, a four-inch layer of sand or gravel must be placed on top of the soil before pouring the concrete.
Clean debris or loose foundation pieces out of the crack.
Mix the "S" mortar with the sand. Fill the bucket with water to one-quarter of its volume, or 1.25 gallons. Add the sand first, and then add the mortar. Make sure you add one part sand to two parts of mortar. Mix until it becomes slightly sticky, and can stay on the trowel without falling off.
Spray water onto the cracked area of the foundation. The mortar bonds more effectively to a wet area. The water will also help the mortar mix go into the crack and not sit outside of the crack.
Push the mortar mix into the crack with with trowel. With the back of the trowel, push the mortar into the crack.
Smooth the mortar until it is even with the foundation. Allow six to eight hours for the mortar to dry.