Sugarberry (Laevigata) is generally described as
a perennial tree or shrub.
native to the U.S. (United States)
has its most active growth period in the
spring and summer .
The greatest bloom is usually observed in the
with fruit and seed production starting in the
summer and continuing until
not retained year to year.
Sugarberry (Laevigata) has a
moderate life span relative to most other plant species and a
rapid growth rate.
At maturity, the typical
Sugarberry (Laevigata) will reach up to
80 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of
Sugarberry (Laevigata) is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors. It can be propagated by
bare root, container, cuttings, seed.
It has a
slow ability to spread through seed production and the seedlings have
Note that cold stratification is
not required for seed germination and the plant cannot survive exposure to temperatures below
low tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions.
Uses of : Landscaping, Medicinal, Culinary, etc.
Ethnobotanic: Sugarberry was used by a variety of Native American tribes. The Houma used a concentrate made from the bark to treat sore throats and a decoction made from the bark and ground up shells to treat venereal disease. The Comanche would beat the fruits of sugarberry to a pulp. The pulp was then mixed with animal fat, rolled into balls, and roasted in the fire for food. The Acoma, Navajo, and Tewa all consumed the berries for food. The Navajo boiled the leaves and branches to make dark brown and red dye for wool.
General: Elm Family (Ulmaceae). Sugarberry is a tree that can become up to 30 m tall and 1m in diameter. It has a broad crown formed by spreading branches, that are often drooped. The bark is light gray in color and can be smooth or covered with corky warts. The branchlets are covered with short hairs at first and eventually they become smooth. The leaves are alternated, simple, and slightly serrate. The leaves are 5 to 13 cm long and 3 to 5 cm wide. The lance-shaped leaves gradually taper to a point that is often curved. They are pale green on both the upper and lower surfaces with conspicuous veins. The flowers appear just before, or with the leaves in the spring. The drupes are subspherical and 5 to 8 mm in diameter. They have a thick skin and the pit surface has a netlike pattern. The drupes range in color from orange to reddish-brown and are attached by pedicels that are 6 to 15 mm long.
Required Growing Conditions
For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.
Habitat: Sugarberry is found growing in sandy loam or rocky soils along streams, in bottomlands, and in woodlands.
Adaptation When sugarberry is top-killed by fire it will resprout from the root collar.
General Upkeep and Control
CEOC"Common hackberry is susceptible to frost damage in the northern portions of its range. For this reason, it is best to plant it in the second or third row of either the windward or leeward half of windbreaks.
A few studies indicate that fire suppresses growth and regeneration of common hackberry. Seedlings will not emerge in sunlight provided by a newly opened canopy. Low intensity fires will injure trees or reduce their reproductive potential while high intensity fires may kill some trees. Wounds caused by fire attract insects or fungi that can pose more problems for the plant.
Pests and Potential Problems Insect and fungal infestations make common hackberry plants unattractive, but generally do not kill them. Common hackberry is host to gall-producing insects including the hackberry petiole gall psylid, hackberry nipplegall maker, hackberry bud gall maker, and the hackberry blistergall psyllid (all in the genus Pachypsylla).
Leaf spot fungi frequently occur on common hackberry trees. More damaging is the witches’ broom disease that causes rosette formation on branch tips. Witches’ broom is initiated by the combined infestation of a gall mite and powdery mildew. Fungal infection by oak fungus (Armillaria mellea) causes root rot on injured trees, leading to death.
Seeds and Plant Production Common hackberry seeds are ready for collection in September and October. They can be dried to less than 5% moisture content and remain viable throughout long storage periods. One study showed no loss in viability following 5.5 years in sealed storage at 10oC. Seeds will germinate at 21oC following 60 to 90 days of cold stratification at 5oC. Germination may increase with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) application. Treat seeds with concentrated H2SO4 for one hour, wash with water, and treat for another hour in H2SO4. "
Source: USDA, NRCS, PLANTS Database, plants.usda.gov.
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA