Red Clover (Pratense) is generally described as
a perennial forb/herb.
not native to the U.S. (United States)
and has its most active growth period in the
spring and summer .
Red Clover (Pratense) has
green foliage and
red flowers, with
an abuncance of
conspicuous brown fruits or seeds.
The greatest bloom is usually observed in the
with fruit and seed production starting in the
spring and continuing until
not retained year to year.
Red Clover (Pratense) has a
short life span relative to most other plant species and a
rapid growth rate.
At maturity, the typical
Red Clover (Pratense) will reach up to
2 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of
Red Clover (Pratense) is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors. It can be propagated by
It has a
slow ability to spread through seed production and the seedlings have
Note that cold stratification is
not required for seed germination and the plant cannot survive exposure to temperatures below
low tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions.
Uses of : Landscaping, Medicinal, Culinary, etc.
Red clover is primarily used for hay, pasture, silage, and soil improvement. It is a quick growing crop, easily established, and produces high quality forage. Tolerance of shade allows red clover to be used effectively as a cover crop under silage corn.
Trifolium pratense L., red clover, is an introduced biennial or short-lived perennial that grows as one of two types: medium (double-cut) or mammoth (single-cut). Red clover plants grow from crowns. Plants have hollow, hairy stems and branches. Stem lengths of medium and mammoth types average 18 inches and 24 to 30 inches, respectively. Medium types have about 4 branches per stem; mammoth have 6. Each leaf consists of a slender stalk bearing 3 leaflets. The taproot of red clover is extensively branched. Flowers are borne in compact clusters or heads and are usually rose-pink in color. Seed pods are small, short, and contain kidney-shaped seeds that vary in color from yellow to deep violet. Mammoth red clover matures later than medium types; only one crop of mammoth red clover is harvested each season since recovery is slow.
Required Growing Conditions
Red clover grows best on well-drained loamy soils, but it will also grow on soil that is not as well-drained. Medium and fine textured soils are preferred by the plant over sandy or gravelly soils. It is best adapted to a pH of 6.0 or higher.
Red clover is distributed throughout the United States.
Cultivation and Care
Red clover may be seeded in pure stands, but it is often mixed with grain or grass. Spring or late summer seedings are satisfactory. It may be overseeded in the spring on fall seeded grasses. Red clover seed should be inoculated. Phosphorus and potash are the fertilizer elements needed mostly by red clover. Apply as recommended by soil tests. Seeding may be done with a drill or broadcast. A firm, weed-free seedbed is essential. Plant seeds ¼ to ½ inch deep.
General Upkeep and Control
Graze or cut for hay when the red clover is ¼ to ½ in bloom. A second cutting or successive grazings should occur when red clover is ¼ in bloom. Leave at least 2 inches of growth after each harvest. Care should be taken to eliminate or appreciably reduce bloating of livestock. Keep lime and fertilizers (phosphorus and potash) at the proper level. Control insects and diseases.
Pests and Potential Problems Anthracnose and powdery mildew may be problems in areas with high humidity and rainfall. Choose resistant cultivars to reduce the occurrence of these diseases.
Cultivars, Improved, and Selected Materials (and area of origin) Some of the major cultivars for the western US are ‘Pennscott’, ‘Chesapeake’, ‘Kenland’, ‘Cumberland’, ‘Dollard’, ‘Midland’ and ‘Lakeland’. ‘Altaswede’, ‘Norlac’, and ‘Craig’ are mammoth red clovers. In the eastern US, varieties selected should be resistant to anthracnose and powdery mildew. Some cultivars commercially available that are moderate to highly resistant to anthracnose are ‘Acclaim’, ‘Rally’, ‘Redland II’, and ‘Renegade’. Those moderate to highly resistant to powdery mildew are ‘Arlington’, ‘Rally’, ‘Rebel’, ‘Red Star’, and ‘Reddy’. Most cultivars and varieties adapted to your area can be found through local seed suppliers.
Source: USDA, NRCS, PLANTS Database, plants.usda.gov.
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA