Green Arrow Arum (Virginica) is generally described as
a perennial forb/herb.
native to the U.S. (United States)
has its most active growth period in the
Green Arrow Arum (Virginica) has
green foliage and
yellow flowers, with
a moderate amount of
conspicuous brown fruits or seeds.
The greatest bloom is usually observed in the
with fruit and seed production starting in the
spring and continuing until
not retained year to year.
Green Arrow Arum (Virginica) has a
moderate life span relative to most other plant species and a
slow growth rate.
At maturity, the typical
Green Arrow Arum (Virginica) will reach up to
2.3 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of
Green Arrow Arum (Virginica) is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors. It can be propagated by
It has a
rapid ability to spread through seed production and the seedlings have
Note that cold stratification is
not required for seed germination and the plant cannot survive exposure to temperatures below
none tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions.
Uses of : Landscaping, Medicinal, Culinary, etc.
Expansive stands of arrow arum often develop in the marginal waters it inhabits. The foliage and stems in these stands create a wave deflecting or buffering barrier, while the root masses knit together and stabilize the submerged sediments. The roots and shoots translocate methane from the substrate. Arrow arum fruit is a preferred food of wood ducks, and is also eaten by muskrats and rails. The foliage is seldom damaged, providing good cover to waterfowl, wading birds, insects, and aquatic mammals.
The bright green, smooth, succulent, arrow- to heart-shaped leaves of arrow arum (Peltandra virginica) emerge annually from perennial bulbs. The bulbs are tufted with thick fibrous roots. The 4 to 30 inch long ascending leaves are 3 to 8 inches wide, and have three prominent veins with an abrupt, sharp tip.
Arrow arum is monoecious, with both male and female parts contained in a partially closed 4 to 8 inch green spathe. It blooms from May to July. As the fruit matures the entire flowering stem curves downward, immersing the spathe. The green berry-like fruit is up to 1/2 inch long, and usually contains one seed. Upon separation from the flowering stem, this floatable fruit begins to turn black
Required Growing Conditions
The native range of arrow arum is from Maine to Ontario and Michigan, south to Florida, Louisiana, and Missouri. It commonly inhabits shallow water areas of marshes, bogs, swamps, stream and river bottoms, lakes, ponds, and ditches. This emergent requires unconsolidated silty or organic sites, which are open, and saturated or inundated up to 1 foot. It will tolerate pHs of 3.0 to 9.5, and salinity up to 2 ppt.
Cultivation and Care
Arrow arum predominantly relies on its seed production for re-establishment and population distribution, but it can be propagated vegetatively. There are an average of 500 cleaned seeds per pound. When the fruit of this species falls into or is stored in water, the fruit coating swells and ruptures. The seed separates, sinks, then begins to germinate if site conditions are adequate. This same seedling development process can easily be replicated in cultivated fields or in greenhouses. Vegetative propagation is by root bulb divisions. The bulbs form in layers around a root mass, which may be as deep as 8 inches. Once dug, the bulbs are broken from the root mass, then either directly planted or transplanted into containers or production beds. One mature plant may produce up to ten of these planting units.
General Upkeep and Control
If planted into soils with low organic contents, arrow arum responds well to applications of commercial fertilizer. Only marginal effect is expected with the addition of fertilizers on adequate sites. To sustain good vigorous plant growth, soils must be deep and maintained at the saturation point, or inundated to a depth shallower than the leaves. Once established, this species tolerates partial shade, but young seedlings need direct sunlight. If managing for seed production, timely harvest is necessary, since ripe fruit are readily consumed by wood ducks and muskrats. No other damaging pests have been documented or observed.
In the Northeast, arrow arum grows in association with facultative wetland trees and shrubs, wild rice, woolgrass, burreeds, and soft rush. In shallower open water it often is over topped by aggressive rhizomatous species.
Cultivars, Improved, and Selected Materials (and area of origin) No known varieties are available, but wetland nurseries carry local or regional ecotypes.
Source: USDA, NRCS, PLANTS Database, plants.usda.gov.
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA