Black Hawthorn (Douglasii) is generally described as
a perennial tree or shrub.
native to the U.S. (United States)
has its most active growth period in the
spring and summer and fall .
Black Hawthorn (Douglasii) has
green foliage and
white flowers, with
a moderate amount of
conspicuous black fruits or seeds.
The greatest bloom is usually observed in the
with fruit and seed production starting in the
spring and continuing until
not retained year to year.
Black Hawthorn (Douglasii) has a
moderate life span relative to most other plant species and a
moderate growth rate.
At maturity, the typical
Black Hawthorn (Douglasii) will reach up to
25 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of
Black Hawthorn (Douglasii) is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors. It can be propagated by
bare root, container, cuttings, seed.
It has a
moderate ability to spread through seed production and the seedlings have
Note that cold stratification is
not required for seed germination and the plant cannot survive exposure to temperatures below
low tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions.
Uses of : Landscaping, Medicinal, Culinary, etc.
Erosion Control: Because it tolerates a wide variety of sites, black hawthorn can be planted to stabilize banks, for shelterbelts, and for erosion control along ditches and highways.
Timber: Although the wood is hard and strong, it has no commercial value except for tool handles and other small items.
Wildlife: It provides abundant food and cover for game birds such as the blue and sharp-tailed grouse. The mule deer, small mammals and other wildlife species feed on the leaves and twigs of young seedlings or trees. Livestock readily eats its leaves if accessible.
Beautification: Ideal for biological barriers between recreational areas and physical structures.
It is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to thirty-five feet tall, with straight, strong but few thorns ranging from 0.5 to 1 inch long. Stems are usually clustered from the base or from a point just above the ground surface. Leaves are smooth, long, broad, dark green, shiny, and serrated at the tip. Flowers are globe-shaped and in small clusters produced in the spring. Its fruits are dark reddish-purple to black.
Required Growing Conditions
Crataegus douglasii, black hawthorn, is widespread in the Pacific Northwest, from southeastern Alaska south through British Columbia to northern California.
Adaptation Black hawthorn generally occurs on deep, moist, fine-textured soils, at lower elevations ranging from 2,200–5,400 ft. Although it will succeed in partial shade and different soil types, it grows best in full sunlight with sufficient moisture levels. It is predominantly an understory species and seldom found in pure stands. It is fire tolerant and will re-sprout and produce suckers following fire disturbance.
Cultivation and Care
Propagation from Seed or Grafting: Black hawthorn can be propagated by either seeds or grafting. To increase percent germination, seeds require acid scarification for 0.5 to 3 hours, followed by 84 to 112 days of cold treatment. Seeds are planted early in the fall, in drill rows 8 to 12 inches apart and covered with 1/4 inch of soil. Seedlings must not be kept in the nursery longer than a year. Approximate seed per pound: 22,600.
Containerized trees should be planted when they are no more than eight feet tall, in the fall or spring. Balled and burlapped trees should be planted in early spring.
Grafting on seedling stock of Crataegus oxyacantha or Crataegus monogyna is best carried out in the winter to early spring.
General Upkeep and Control
Because it develops long taproot it should not be kept in seedbeds more than one year. Pruning should be done in the winter or early spring in order to maintain a clear shoot leader on young trees and/or remove the weakest branches to allow more light to pass through. Suckers or stems arising from the roots should be removed when they become noticeable. Limited agriculture/livestock can help maintain and protect black hawthorn thickets as important source of food and cover for wildlife.
Pest and Potential Problems Although pests and diseases seldom affect it, it is susceptible to fireblight, cedar-hawthorn rust, cedar-quince rust, leaf blight, fruit rot, and leaf spot.
Source: USDA, NRCS, PLANTS Database, plants.usda.gov.
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA