Arrowleaf Clover (Vesiculosum)

The Arrowleaf Clover (Vesiculosum) is generally described as an annual forb/herb. This is not native to the U.S. (United States) and has its most active growth period in the year round . The Arrowleaf Clover (Vesiculosum) has green foliage and inconspicuous white flowers, with an abuncance of conspicuous brown fruits or seeds. The greatest bloom is usually observed in the late spring, with fruit and seed production starting in the summer and continuing until summer. Leaves are not retained year to year. The Arrowleaf Clover (Vesiculosum) has a short life span relative to most other plant species and a rapid growth rate. At maturity, the typical Arrowleaf Clover (Vesiculosum) will reach up to 3 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of 0 inches.

The Arrowleaf Clover (Vesiculosum) is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors. It can be propagated by seed. It has a slow ability to spread through seed production and the seedlings have high vigor. Note that cold stratification is not required for seed germination and the plant cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -3°F. has low tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions.

Uses of : Landscaping, Medicinal, Culinary, etc.

Arrowleaf clover is suitable for hay, grazing, seed production, soil improvement, and wildlife. Deer and turkey readily feed on this clover, which often persists well into early summer.

General Characteristics

Arrowleaf clover is an upright, cool-season, reseeding annual legume that grows to a height of 40 to 50 inches under good conditions. Seeds germinate in the fall, but grow slowly during the winter. Leaflets are large, rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Some leaflets have white, V-shaped markings. Blossoms are arranged in a cluster or head up to 2 inches long. Initially, the blossoms are white to pinkish, turning brown when mature.

Required Growing Conditions

The plant is suited to a wide range of soil conditions from well- to moderately well-drained and from slightly acid to slightly alkaline. It is not suited to light textured, droughty soil of low fertility or to poorly drained, wet soils.

Arrowleaf clover is distributed throughout the midsouth and southeastern United States.

Cultivation and Care

Prepare a smooth, clean seedbed. Firm with a cultipacker before and after planting. Cover seed ¼ to ½ inch deep. Arrowleaf clover may also be planted in an established summer perennial grass sod by light disking or with a no-till drill. Interseeding into a grass sod should be delayed until about the first frost date. Plant at a rate of 10 lbs of inoculated seed per/acre. Follow soil test recommendations, if available. If not, apply 300 lbs/acre of 0-20-20 or similar analysis at planting time, and annually (August or September) as a maintenance fertilizer.

General Upkeep and Control

Start grazing when plants are 5 to 6 inches tall. Maintain a minimum top growth of 3 to 4 inches during the growing-season. For commercial seed production, exclude livestock or do not cut for hay after May 1. For reseeding, allow plants to attain a minimum height of 12 to 15 inches in early July to mature seed. For hay, cut in early bloom stage. When ‘Meechee’ arrowleaf clover is grown with summer perennial grasses, graze or cut surplus growth of grass to 2 inches by October 1.

Pests and Potential Problems Unknown.

Cultivars, Improved, and Selected Materials (and area of origin) ‘Amclo’ (Italy), ‘Yuchi’, ‘Meechee’ (Italy). Order of maturity for these cultivars: ‘Yuchi’--early, ‘Amclo’--intermediate, ‘Meechee’--late.

Plant Basics
Growth Rate Rapid
General Type Forb/herb
Growth Period Year Round
Growth Duration Annual
Lifespan Short
Plant Nativity Introduced to U.S.
Commercial Availability Routinely Available
Physical Characteristics
Bloom Period Late Spring
Displays Fall Colors No
Shape/Growth Form Single Crown
Drought Tolerance Low
Shade Tolerance Intolerant
Height When Mature 3
Vegetative Spread None
Flower Color White
Flower Conspicuousness Yes
Fruit/Seed Abundance High
Fruit/Seed Seasonality Summer Summer
Seed Spread Rate Slow
Gardening Characteristics
Propagations (Ways to Grow) Seed
Moisture Requirements Medium
Cold Stratification Required Yes
Minimum Temperature -3
Soil Depth for Roots 10
Toxic to Nearby Plants No
Toxic to Livestock No
After-Harvest Regrowth Rate Slow
After-Harvest Resprout Ability No
Responds to Coppicing No
Growth Requirements
pH Range 6–7.5 pH
Precipitation Range 36–36 inches/yr
Planting Density 0–0 indiv./acre
Soil Textures Coarse, Fine, Medium
Soil Depth for Roots 10
Minimum Frost-Free Days 210 day(s)
Salinity Tolerance None
CaCO3 Tolerance Low
Sustainability & Use
Leaf Retention No
Palatability High
Fire Resistant No
Causes Livestock Bloating Low

Source: USDA, NRCS, PLANTS Database,
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA