Growth Stages of Bermuda Grass
Germination & Root Development
Bermuda grass seed takes anywhere form three days to three weeks to germinate depending on conditions. When sown onto moist soil during warm temperatures between 60 and 70-degrees Fahrenheit and watered frequently it can germinate more quickly. The seed when in contact with moist, nutrient-rich soil and frequently applied water will break out of dormancy and develop pale tiny shoots and fine white roots.
Blade Top Growth
Within 10-12 days, fine green shoots and young grass blades will be visible. The roots will be very thin and loosely connected in the soil and must not be disturbed by walking or strong streams of water. Over a period of three to eight weeks the grass lawn will fill in to become a blanket of soft green blades and the roots will develop as well becoming thicker and well rooted in the top three to seven inches of soil.
Stolon and Rhizome Growth
Bermuda grass uses stolons and rhizomes to spread from the parent plant and colonize new area with baby grass plants. As the green blades and roots develop, thicker organs called stolons and rhizomes develop in tandem. Stolons creep along the surface of the soil to spread new plants while rhizomes are similar in structure to stolons but grow and spread underneath the soil to carry the plant to new locations. The fact that Bermuda grass uses both of these types of vegetative propagation is what makes it a hearty turf grass and also a difficult weed to eradicate when it is unwanted.
Seed Head Development
When the Bermuda grass is mature and the roots well developed it will throw up tall, thin, propeller-shaped seed heads in the summer and early fall. The seed heads stand slightly proud of the grass blades and will release their tiny seeds to the wind and soil below when they reach maturity. Bermuda grass seeds germinate readily where they land so mowing frequently to prevent the formation or ensure the collection of seed heads is imperative to controlling Bermuda grass.