Seed-bearing plants, or spermatophytes, are either gymnosperms or angiosperms. Gymnosperms have “naked seeds,” while angiosperms have a protection over the seeds. Seeding is a way to propagate, or reproduce more plants, from a single plant. This way the gardener can have many more of the plants they love for containers, hanging baskets or other garden plots in the landscape.
The sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is a perennial from the aster/daisy family. It will attract birds and butterflies. Depending on the cultivar, it can range from five to 15 feet. Flowers are yellow and eight to 12 inches wide. Leaves are rough and hairy. Seeds are located in the flowerhead and are edible.
The arugula, Eruca sativa, is a fast-growing annual from the cabbage family. It has three- to seven-inch-long leaves with white crosslike flowers. Leaves are used as salad greens or seasoning, and have a peppery taste like mustard greens.
The black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia hirta, can be a perennial or annual, and is from the aster/daisy family. The leaves are basal, four to seven inches long and diamond shaped. Flowers are up to three inches wide in the summer and autumn, and are similar to daisies. Plant a black-eyed Susan in full sun to light shade. Propagate via seed or by root mass division.
The blue passionflower, Passiflora caerulea, is a fragrant perennial from the passion flower family. It is drought-tolerant and will attract butterflies. It is a vine that can reach 30 feet high. White or purplish blue flowers are four inches wide. Fruits show up in late summer and fall, and are orange and egg-shaped. Plant a blue passionflower in full sun with good drainage. Propagate from seed or by spring cuttings (tip or nodal).
The snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus, is a perennial or annual from the figwort family. It will attract hummingbirds. It will get four inches to three feet tall depending on the cultivar selected. Flowers are tubular and in any color but blue. Plant a snapdragon in full sun or partial shade in well-drained soil. Propagate via seed. In good surroundings it can self-sow.