Cold-weather palm trees can withstand the weather outside USDA zones 10 and 11. In zone 9 and below, freezing temperatures can be expected each winter, prohibiting the planting of familiar warm-weather palms like the coconut palm.
The palm with the most cold tolerance is the needle palm. It will tolerate temperatures as low as minus-20 degrees Fahrenheit. The California fan palm will survive with a minimum of 12 degrees Fahrenheit. The dwarf palmetto will survive to minus-5 degrees Fahrenheit.
Even hardy cold weather palms can suffer from a cold winter. Many owners of these palm trees protect them from winter winds with a greenhouse or a wire cage lined in plastic. The peacock palm is a cold-weather palm, but can only survive 24 degrees and warmer. It may need to be protected during the coldest winter months.
The Mediterranean fan palm is the only palm tree native to Europe. It will tolerate temperatures as low as 15 degrees Fahrenheit.
The palm family, Palmaceae, consist of more than 1,500 palm species. Not all of these plants are trees. Some palms are shrubs and some are vines. The scrub palmetto is a shrub palm.
Not all palm trees prefer full sun exposure. Some species of cold-weather palm prefer shady areas. Those palms are often protected from cold winds by the trees and buildings that provide the shade.