How Are Flower Bulbs Made?
True flower bulbs are underground structures that store and protect a plant throughout cooler seasons. Flower bulbs contain a blossom as well as leaves that will burst through the ground during the growing season. This miniature plant is protected by layers of leaves called scales that contain nutrients. Additionally, bulbs have lateral buds around their bases that can develop into offsets called bulblets. Offsets can be used to produce new plants (and cultivate new bulbs).
Bulbs can be produced either from seeds or from offsets. When they are cultivated from seeds, it can take several years for a plant to form. This is because the bulb must develop first. Bulbs that are created from offsets often develop much more quickly. In that case, cultivators dig up older bulbs that have flowered already and split the offsets from the original bulb. The offsets are planted and, once in the ground, develop into full flowering bulbs.
Once plants have flowered, growers harvest the bulbs by digging them up in the fall. The bulbs are split from their offsets. The mature bulbs are stored in a cool, dry place until they can be replanted. The offsets are usually replanted so that they can develop into bulbs. Growers can generally tell that the bulbs have developed offsets by the way that the plant appears. A plant that has a bulb that is crowded by offsets will appear smaller than it has in previous growing seasons.
Flower Bulbs Are Alive
The wait between the work of planting bulbs and the payoff of seeing their brilliant blooms is long enough for most gardeners. or daffodils (Narcissus spp.) -- becomes downright frustrating when they fail to come up as expected. Take time to evaluate new bulbs before you plant them to avoid disappointment and gaps in your garden plan. Examine the bulbs to determine that they are plump and firm. Splits, a loose fit or missing sections in the bulb's tunic are not a problem and, according to the International Bulb Society, may even encourage rooting. Discard any bulbs that are mushy, moldy or smell bad. Fill a bucket or other container with water and toss in your bulbs. Dig up bulbs that were healthy when planted, but never came up. Those planted less than 8 inches under the soil may have disappeared -- eaten by moles or other rodents. Bulbs can also rot in wet conditions.
- University of Illinois Extension
- Ohio State University Extension
- Virginia Cooperative Extension
- University of California Extension Master Gardeners Napa County: Types of Flowering Bulbs
- International Bulb Society: Flower Bulb Basics and FAQs
- Journey North International Tulip Test Gardens: Frequently Asked Questions
- University of Illinois Extension: Bulbs and More -- Questions and Answers
- Journey North International: Find the Flower Bud
- Fine Gardening: Avoiding Tulip Troubles
- Fine Gardening: Genus Tulipa (Tulip)
- Fine Gardening: Genus Narcissus (Daffodil)
- Colorado State University Extension: Lilies Add an Exotic Look to the Garden