Apple varieties are split into eating apples, cooking apples and cider apples. They are further categorized into commercial varieties (chosen for color, shape and simultaneous harvest) and home gardening varieties, which are generally chosen for their flavor, a longer harvesting period and storage potential. Many mutated varieties in home orchards cross-pollinate with different varieties, producing a new hybrid apple.
Braeburn is primarily an eating apple, but is also suitable for making apple sauce. This variety, grown widely throughout the world, is a favorite in the United Kingdom, United Sates, Australia and New Zealand. Favored by commercial growers and home gardeners, Braeburn can be prone to disease and blight. Spray regimes are often needed to maintain quality fruit yield. It bears pale, olive-green fruit, striped with red or pink, late in the season. It has a sweet flavor and crisp texture.
Cox's Orange Pippin
Cox’s Orange Pippin is a mid-season eating apple that's grown in Australia, Canada, the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand. Viewed as one of the favored “English” apple varieties, it offers tender yellow flesh and a sweet, juicy, aromatic flavor.
Originating in New Zealand, gala apples are now grown across the world. The trees bear an abundance of orange-red fruit, which are sweet and crisp. Gala, grown commercially and by the home gardener, has a long storage period. Gala is suitable for cooking and eating.
An all-purpose apple, golden delicious are commercially favored, but are also suitable for the home gardener. They have crisp yellow flesh and a green skin, and are a mid-season apple.
Red delicious have a crisp, firm, juicy texture, with white flesh and a deep red skin. They have good storage capabilities, but are not suitable as a cooking apple.
Introduced to the United States in 1948, the mutsu variety was developed in Japan. An all-purpose apple, it's suited to cooking, eating and cider making. It's a late-season variety, producing yellow-green fruit. Mutsu apples offer a high yield, over a six-week period, but have a thin skin, meaning they bruise easily and have only a short storage span.
An egremont russet apple is a small, green-brown fruit with a dense, dry texture and a thick skin. Egremont russet is an early mid-season variety. The fruits have a better flavor if left to “mellow” for two to three weeks after harvest. Because of the dense flesh and thick skin, the egremont russet has a long storage span, but may become wrinkled or shriveled. Egremont russet has a high level of disease resistance without the use of sprays.