The geography of Argentina, the eighth largest country in the world, is widely varied. There are subtropical and rain forest areas, savanna-like plains, rocky barren areas, coniferous temperate zones and sub-polar regions. The plants and flowers of Argentina are as widely varied as the geography and climate of the country. One list simply could not contain them all. There are a few notable plants and flowers in Argentina that capture the minds, attention and interest of many.
Erythrina cristina galli is the scientific name for Argentina's national flower, which is produced on a tree of the same name. Native to South America, ceibo trees are found along swampy riverbanks, wetlands and low-lying floodplains. Coral-colored flowers appear on the tree in October and bloom from the months of November to February. The normal height of a mature ceibo tree is between 16 and 26 feet tall, though some areas are conducive to growths up to 33 feet tall. The bark of the tree is thick and woody with protruding spikes often described as "tiger claws." Ceibo trees are planted as ornamental foliage for their bright flowers and short stature.
The ombu, or Phytolacca dioica, is an evergreen shrub native to the pampas, or grasslands, of Argentina. Though it is classified as a shrub because the bark is soft and malleable, the ombu reaches heights of 40 to 60 feet. The sap and leaves of the ombu are mildly toxic. The leaves are used locally as a laxative. The canopy of an ombu plant spreads almost as wide as the plant is tall and provides shade in the otherwise flat plains it inhabits. The trunk of the plant is incredibly fire resistant, as it collects large amounts of water for just that purpose.
Fucshia, Fuchsia magellanica, is a common garden plant native to southern Argentina. An upright shrub that grows to 10 feet in the proper growing conditions, fuchsia is hardy to USDA zones 6 through 9. An abundance of small, bell shaped hanging flowers in shades of stark red, hot pink and, rarely, white, bloom on this plant in summer. Preferring full sun or partial shade, fuchsia thrives in rich, moist, well-drained soil. The flowers are said to attract hummingbirds to gardens, an added bonus to the bright blooms they produce.
Senecio pulcher is a plant that grows in the wet, rocky regions of Argentina. It is grown as an ornamental plant for its bright purple flowers, the centers of which are a stark yellow. Rich, well-drained soil and full to partial sun make this plant thrive. Senecio pulcher grows about 2 feet high and is characterized by a hairy or dusty stem. Hardy up to USDA zone 5, Senecio pulcher is an annual when planted outside of its native habitat.