European Water Plantain (Plantago-aquatica)

The European Water Plantain (Plantago-aquatica) is generally described as a perennial forb/herb. This is not native to the U.S. (United States) and has its most active growth period in the spring and fall . The European Water Plantain (Plantago-aquatica) has green foliage and inconspicuous white flowers, with a moderate amount of conspicuous yellow fruits or seeds. The greatest bloom is usually observed in the fall, with fruit and seed production starting in the spring and continuing until fall. Leaves are not retained year to year. The European Water Plantain (Plantago-aquatica) has a moderate life span relative to most other plant species and a moderate growth rate. At maturity, the typical European Water Plantain (Plantago-aquatica) will reach up to 3 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of 0 inches.

The European Water Plantain (Plantago-aquatica) is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors. It can be propagated by seed, sprigs. It has a slow ability to spread through seed production and the seedlings have medium vigor. Note that cold stratification is not required for seed germination and the plant cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -33°F. has none tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions.

Plant Basics
Category
Growth Rate Moderate
General Type Forb/herb
Growth Period Spring, Fall
Growth Duration Perennial
Lifespan Moderate
Plant Nativity Introduced to U.S.
Commercial Availability Routinely Available
Physical Characteristics
Bloom Period Fall
Displays Fall Colors No
Shape/Growth Form Bunch
Drought Tolerance None
Shade Tolerance Intolerant
Height When Mature 3
Vegetative Spread None
Flower Color White
Flower Conspicuousness Yes
Fruit/Seed Abundance Medium
Fruit/Seed Seasonality Spring Fall
Seed Spread Rate Slow
Gardening Characteristics
Propagations (Ways to Grow) Seed, Sprigs
Moisture Requirements High
Cold Stratification Required No
Minimum Temperature -33
Soil Depth for Roots 16
Toxic to Nearby Plants No
Toxic to Livestock No
After-Harvest Regrowth Rate Slow
After-Harvest Resprout Ability No
Responds to Coppicing No
Growth Requirements
pH Range 6.3–7.5 pH
Precipitation Range 20–20 inches/yr
Planting Density 1700–4800 indiv./acre
Soil Textures Fine
Soil Depth for Roots 16
Minimum Frost-Free Days 110 day(s)
Salinity Tolerance None
CaCO3 Tolerance Medium
Sustainability & Use
Leaf Retention No
Palatability Medium
Fire Resistant Yes
Causes Livestock Bloating None

Source: USDA, NRCS, PLANTS Database, plants.usda.gov.
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA