Common Yarrow (Millefolium)

The Common Yarrow (Millefolium) is generally described as a perennial forb/herb. This is not native to the U.S. (United States) and has its most active growth period in the spring . The Common Yarrow (Millefolium) has green foliage and inconspicuous white flowers, with a moderate amount of conspicuous brown fruits or seeds. The greatest bloom is usually observed in the early summer, with fruit and seed production starting in the summer and continuing until summer. Leaves are not retained year to year. The Common Yarrow (Millefolium) has a moderate life span relative to most other plant species and a moderate growth rate. At maturity, the typical Common Yarrow (Millefolium) will reach up to 3 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of 0 inches.

The Common Yarrow (Millefolium) is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors. It can be propagated by container, seed, sprigs. It has a slow ability to spread through seed production and the seedlings have low vigor. Note that cold stratification is not required for seed germination and the plant cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -38°F. has medium tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions.

Uses of : Landscaping, Medicinal, Culinary, etc.

Ethnobotanic: Several tribes of the Plains region of the United States including the Pawnee and Chippewa tribes used common yarrow. The Pawnee used the stalk in a treatment for pain relief. The Chippewa used the leaves in a steam inhalant for headaches. They also chewed the roots and applied the saliva to their appendages as a stimulant. The Cherokee drank a tea of common yarrow to reduce fever and aid in restful sleep.

General Characteristics

General: Sunflower Family (Asteraceae). Common yarrow is a perennial herb that produces one to several stems (2-10 dm tall) from a fibrous underground horizontal rootstock (rhizome). It is known to be both native and introduced. Leaves are evenly distributed along the stem, with the leaves near the middle and bottom of the stem being the largest. The leaves have varying degrees of hairiness (pubescence). Leaf blades are lanceolate in outline, but bipinnately dissected. Overall leaf dimensions range from 0.5-3 cm wide by 3-15 cm long. The flower heads (inflorescence) have a flattened dome shape corymbiform (2.5-4 mm thick by 4-5 mm high) with approximately 10-20 ray flowers. The flowers are whitish to yellowish-white. The plant commonly persists from May through June.

Required Growing Conditions

For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Habitat: The plant is frequently found in the mildly disturbed soil of grasslands and open forests.

Status

Weediness This plant may become weedy or invasive in some regions or habitats and may displace desirable vegetation if not properly managed.

Plant Basics
Category
Growth Rate Moderate
General Type Forb/herb
Growth Period Spring
Growth Duration Perennial
Lifespan Moderate
Plant Nativity Native and Introduced to U.S.
Commercial Availability Routinely Available
Physical Characteristics
Bloom Period Early Summer
Displays Fall Colors No
Shape/Growth Form Rhizomatous
Drought Tolerance Medium
Shade Tolerance Intermediate
Height When Mature 3
Vegetative Spread Slow
Flower Color White
Flower Conspicuousness Yes
Fruit/Seed Abundance Medium
Fruit/Seed Seasonality Summer Summer
Seed Spread Rate Slow
Gardening Characteristics
Propagations (Ways to Grow) Container, Seed, Sprigs
Moisture Requirements Medium
Cold Stratification Required No
Minimum Temperature -38
Soil Depth for Roots 8
Toxic to Nearby Plants No
Toxic to Livestock No
After-Harvest Regrowth Rate Moderate
After-Harvest Resprout Ability No
Responds to Coppicing No
Growth Requirements
pH Range 6–8 pH
Precipitation Range 8–8 inches/yr
Planting Density 4800–19000 indiv./acre
Soil Textures Medium
Soil Depth for Roots 8
Minimum Frost-Free Days 120 day(s)
Salinity Tolerance None
CaCO3 Tolerance Medium
Sustainability & Use
Leaf Retention No
Palatability Medium
Fire Resistant No
Causes Livestock Bloating Low

Source: USDA, NRCS, PLANTS Database, plants.usda.gov.
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA