Camomile (Matricaria recutita), also known as chamomile, is Russia's national flower. It is an annual herb that is native to West Asia, but grows naturally throughout Russia. The plant grows to between 6 and 12 inches tall and produces fragrant white or off-white flowers with yellow centers in mid-spring. The flowers resemble those of the cone flower with a raised yellow center and white petals extending down. It is widely used as an herbal remedy to help sooth digestive problems, hysteria and nervousness, and as a preventative for gangrene. When mixed with bittersweet, it is used as a treatment for bruises, sprains, calluses and corns. The flowers are dried and used to make chamomile tea. Camomile is easy to grow from seed in acid to neutral soil with a full sun exposure.
Columbine (Aquilegia) is well-represented among the famous flowers grown in Russia. Of the 70 Columbine species, 30 are commonly grown there. Columbine is an herbaceous perennial that is hardy in USDA planting zones 4 through 8, while some cultivars that are hardy to zone 3. They are clump-forming plants that grow to between 1 1/2 and 3 feet tall with widths ranging from 9 inches to 1 1/2 feet wide depending on the cultivar. Blooming season is late spring to early summer with ornate spurred flowers. Some types of Columbine have very long spurs or sepals, while others have short spurs. The flowers are usually two-toned with combinations including red with yellow or white, chocolate-purple with green, white to pale pink with dark purple, or solid yellow. The foliage can be medium to dark green or green-blue, and is generally fern-like. Columbine is fairly easy to grow in most types of soils, but prefers rich, moist soils with full to partial sun exposure.
Tulips (Tulipa) are popular in Russia. Of the 100 species of tulips, 78 are commonly grown there. They are perennial spring-blooming flowers that grow from bulbs. Tulip plants can be from 9 inches to 2 feet tall and 6 to 9 inches wide, depending on the cultivar. There are a variety of bloom types. Blooms can be shaped like a cup, bowl, goblet or star and may be single or double. Some cultivars produce fringed or ruffled flowers as well. The blooms can be any color except true blue, and may include a combination of colors. The foliage is generally blue- or gray-green with elongated or strap-shaped leaves. Tulips grow best in organically fertile, well-drained soil with a full sun exposure.