Before you begin breaking the concrete slab, it’s important to wear the proper safety attire. When you hit concrete with a hammer, it can splinter and send sharp chunks of concrete through the air at a high rate of speed. You should wear steel-toed boots, heavy work pants or jeans, leather work gloves, a long-sleeved shirt and full face protection. Eye protection is better than nothing, but it is wise to wear a clear, Plexiglas full-face shield for this project.
Hitting a piece of concrete with a normal, nail-driving hammer will make the task long and arduous for you. Instead, purchase a sledgehammer for the job. Hardware stores sell sledgehammers in a variety of weights; choose one that you can adequately (and safely) swing. The heavier the hammer is, the easier it will be to break the concrete, but remember not to buy a hammer that is too heavy, as you’ll be swinging it repeatedly.
If the concrete slab you're breaking is a patio stone, it’s helpful to have a friend assist you with the task. Simply hitting a concrete slab while it lies on the ground is a slow way to crack it. Instead, have a friend lift the edge of the slab with a shovel or pry bar just an inch or two off the ground. Hit the slab with a sledgehammer near the edge, and the concrete should crack in one or two blows. Once a piece falls off, clear it out of the way and continue the same process with your friend’s assistance.
You can break concrete steps with a sledgehammer, though they take longer to break than plain concrete slabs. Because concrete steps are hollow, swing the sledgehammer into an area at 3 three inches away from any edge, because the edges are reinforced. After a few swings, your sledgehammer should punch a hole in the concrete. From there, continue hitting the concrete around the hole to expand it. Some concrete steps contain rebar or reinforcing rod inside the concrete. When you reach one of these areas, cut the rebar with a hacksaw or snip the reinforcing rod with bolt cutters.