A contract between the landowner and construction company is first signed to initiate the process of building a new house. Soil testing is done next to test the reliability of the soil and its ability to withstand erosion and support the foundation, and then the plot is physically mapped out. After site approval by the landowner, the subsequent approval by the homeowners association and all necessary permits are filed, the house can be registered. A sanitarian is then consulted with the specifications of the house's septic tank plan.
Foundation and Framing
After the pre-construction phase, land for the site is cleared and leveled. The foundation is then put down according to its plot map. Depending on the construction company and/or at the buyer's option, the foundation may either consist of poured concrete or precast concrete panels. After the foundation is set, the frame is constructed--usually of wood, but steel, concrete and adobe are other popular options. During this phase, the roof, floors, stairs and walls are added to the structure. Exterior finishes are applied to the frame. Shingles are added to the roof, and windows and siding to the exterior walls of the frame.
Plumbing, Electrical & Drywall and Insulation
Plumbing is added to the house--the water heater, toilet foundations, and sink piping--along with electrical wiring and the house's air duct system. Before the drywall is placed over the house's vital organs (the plumbing and electrical circuitry), the work faces an inspection because it's a waste of time and money to remove the drywall to remedy issues with electrical and plumbing work later on. After the inspection, drywall or sheet rock is capped over the insulation and mounted to the wall studs.
Interior and Exterior Finishes
During this phase, the homeowner confirms details on driveways and sidewalks before they're put down. The electrical system is fitted with power switches--outlets and light fixtures--and the plumbing system with toilets, sinks, showers tubs and other plumbing fixtures. The house's interior is finalized with hardwood floors and/or carpeting, and appliances are installed--along with the central heating and cooling unit. Next, the walls are painted and "touched up," doors are added with weather stripping, and the house is cleaned ahead of the final inspection.