A new dogwood tree will not bloom for up to 3 years. This is a period of growth for the tree, and it uses all of its resources during these years to grow into a strong tree before blooming. As this is a natural occurrence; it is not necessary to worry about the tree not blooming. You do need to take care of the tree during this time to avoid future problems. This includes fertilizing, correct pruning and watering properly. Trees that are more than 20 years old will produce fewer blooms as the tree ages.
Dogwood trees prefer full sun. Make sure to plant new dogwoods in a sunny location in soil that drains well. Dogwoods do not like very wet soil and will do poorly in wet locations.
Anthracnose is a disease that randomly attacks dogwood trees and will prevent blooming. Dull, yellowed leaves or brown spots on the leaves are an indication of Anthracnose. To control this disease use an appropriate fungicide for anthracnose. Make sure the tree is in a sunny location, water the tree according to the tree's needs and water in the early morning hours.
Powdery mildew on the leaves can kill the dogwood trees eventually if left untreated. Use the proper fungicide for powdery mildew to control the light powdery substance on the leaves. If powdery mildew is a problem in your area of the country, make sure the dogwood trees you purchase are resistant to powdery mildew to reduce the chance of mildew growth. Any type of "Appalachian" type of dogwood resists powdery mildew better than other species.
During the initial spring growth, if the dogwood tree's buds begin to grow and then die, this is an indication of gall. Gall is the result of a small brown fly that lays larvae in the junctions of the limbs and bud growth. The larvae will bore into the wood, killing the buds. If left untreated, gall will eventually kill the entire tree. If the damage is severe enough, heavy pruning of the dogwood tree will be required. Use Sevin dust or diatomaceous earth to control light infestations of gall.