Flowering fruit trees, indeed, all plants that bear flowers and fruit, all belong to a vast group of plants called angiosperms. From the smallest to the largest, all angiosperms have the same six basic parts. From beneath the earth up to the sky, the six parts are roots, stems, buds, leaves, flowers and fruits.
Roots anchor a tree and this anchorage has to hold even when the tree is being buffeted by the forces of nature. It means that trees have extensive root systems, branching out deep and wide beneath the ground.
Anchoring the tree isn't all roots do. As the roots spread through the ground, they search for and absorb the things necessary for the tree to live. Nutrients from the soil, oxygen from the spaces between the soil grains, water--these are vital and the need to find them drives the spread of roots.
The stems of a tree are the branches and trunk, existing as a massive transport system. Water and nutrients absorbed in the roots travel up and throughout, reaching the other plant parts. Food produced in leaves, meanwhile, is also on the move, nourishing the plant.
The woody stems of fruit trees have a center called a pith ringed by wood, the whole of it protected by bark.
From buds emerge new stems, flowers and leaf stalks and leaves. Buds at the tops or ends of stems are called terminal buds. Those at the sides are called lateral buds. These lateral buds, also called axillary buds, occur at regular intervals on stems. The places where buds occur are nodes; the spaces between the nodes are internodes.
Wherever you see green on a plant, so colored because of the presence of chlorophyll, photosynthesis is taking place. On trees, the green is mainly found on leaves. Their broad, flat sides--blades--collect the energy of sunlight, then, through the process of photosynthesis, transform that sunlight into food the plant uses for growth and reproductive processes.
In angiosperms, flowers exist for reproduction. To that end, they are equipped with stamens--which produce sperm that resides in pollen--and carpels, which possess ovaries containing eggs. The petals and sepals of flowers, considered accessory parts, protect the stamens and carpels. Petals also attract pollinators with color, scent and nectar.
Fruit develops from fertilized flowers. When carpels receive pollen, sperm travels to the ovary where one one sperm fertilizes an egg and another fuses with "polar nuclei," to become endosperm. Endosperm provides food for the embryonic plant that develops from the fertilization of the egg.
Meanwhile, parts of the flower--the floral tube, the ovary--become fruit, swelling and ripening around the seeds. You can see parts of the flower in the fruit. For instance, the ovary wall can be seen around the core of an apple. At the bottom of the apple, you can see dried floral remains.