The four main conditions that keep lime trees from flowering are a lack of maturity, cold damage, poor nutrition and drought stress. A lime tree will regularly begin to flower when it reaches age 3 to 5. Mature lime trees bloom freely in the late spring and produce ripe fruits roughly five to six months later. Environmental and cultural conditions can be improved to support bloom after the tree reaches maturity.
Grow your lime tree in ambient temperatures above 35 degrees Fahrenheit and move it indoors if the temperature ever threatens to drop below 30 degrees as bud and leaves can be lost this temperature.
Feed your lime tree three to four times a year with an ammonium sulfate fertilizer with a guaranteed analysis of 21-0-0. Divide 1 cup of fertilizer for each year of the tree's age up to a maximum of 8 cups over the three or four sessions. Scatter around the base of the lime tree starting 6 inches out from the trunk and extending a foot past the drip line. Scratch the fertilizer into the top inch or two of soil and water in well until the soil is drenched.
Water your lime tree deeply and infrequently to keep the soil evenly moist but not soaking wet at the lower level. Allow the top inch or two of soil to dry out between watering sessions. Depending on your climate and time of year, this may translate into watering once every five days to once every two weeks or more.