If you have limited ground space which you can use for a garden or no actual ground at all, consider using a vegetable garden box. This is a raised planting bed which sits above ground and is held in either a square- or rectangular-shaped box. The garden box can be made from metal, plastic or wood. The most important aspect of using a planter box for a vegetable garden is in proper planning to make the most efficient use of the space. Once planned, the vegetable garden can be planted and grown as you would any other garden.
Plan the best use of space in the vegetable garden box. Conduct research to understand how much room certain plants need in order to properly grow. Organize the vegetable garden in the box in such a way as to make the most efficient use of space. Plan to have root vegetables (radish, carrot, onion) grow around the base of taller vegetables (broccoli, tomato). Plan to have vine vegetables (beans, peas) grow up screens or trellises around the edges of the garden to make the most use of space.
Prepare the vegetable garden box. Drill drainage holes into the base of the box that cover the entire base. Cover the base with an inch of gravel to help with drainage. Fill the box with potting soil up to an inch of the lip. Keep the soil even and loose. Add organic compost using a ratio of 3-to-1 soil-to-compost mix. This will help when planting seeds and root growth. Substitute fertilizer for the compost if needed, but keep the same mix ratio with the soil.
Plant the seedlings. This will give you a quick start to the vegetable garden in the box. Place the seedlings where you planned them on paper. Dig out the proper amount of soil according to instructions provided with the plant or from the supplier. Place the seedlings into the holes and cover the roots with soil. Plant the seeds by digging trenches according to the depth required by the seed packets. Each seed has different requirements.
Water the soil daily. Keep the soil moist during the initial germination period, which can be up to 21 days depending on the plant. If you are keeping the garden box outside, keep track of the rain; don't water the garden if you expect rain that day. Keep the soil damp but not drenched; if you get lots of rain over many days, allow the soil to dry out before watering again.