Almond trees are native to Southwest Asia and reach maturity after two or three years, growing to about 15 to 30 feet in height. In the United States, they are best grown in areas with moderate climates, such as California's Central Valley. According to the University of California Cooperative Extension, the best time to plant almond trees is in January or February. That's when surrounding temperatures are low enough to prevent leaf bud growth, giving the roots time to settle and regenerate.
Find a sunny location with deep, well-drained soil. Perform a pH test to make sure the soil is not overly salty. Almond trees do not do well in soil with a high saline content, so you may need an additive, such as gypsum. Gypsum is readily available at garden centers and home improvement stores. Follow the directions carefully and apply the appropriate amount based on how far on the salty end of the pH scale your soil is.
Dig a hole twice as wide and twice as deep as the root ball of the potted almond tree. Use your garden shovel to make sure the bottom of the hole is relatively flat, and then pour in some topsoil and level the bottom out completely.
Position the root ball on the bed of topsoil. Fill in the rest of the hole with more topsoil. Push the soil down with your fingers to make sure it penetrates the sides of the root ball and reaches the bottom of the hole. Contact between the roots and the soil is critical.
Water thoroughly. Keep the root ball moist at all times.
Fertilize only after the tree's shoots are at least 4 inches in length. According to the University of California Cooperative Extension, use 4 oz. of nitrogen fertilizer (18-5-9, 27-3-3 or 16-4-8), and sprinkle it about 18 inches from the trunk. Repeat two or three times during the growing season.