Grape vines are propagated by taking stem cuttings once the vine has gone dormant. The cuttings should be taken from new or one-year-old growth and be no larger than the diameter of a pencil. Vines propagated in the winter will root and be ready to plant outdoors in the spring. A vine planted outdoors in spring should be large enough to produce fruit by the next growing season.
Take stem cuttings from the dormant grapevine during December or January. Use a sharp knife to cut a 12- to 18-inch section from one-year-old vine, making sure it contains four to five bud nodes.
Prepare the rooting medium by mixing together equal parts of sterile peat moss and perlite. Moisten the mixture with water so it is damp, but not wet. Fill a rooting container or tray with this medium.
Dip the lower cut end of stem into rooting hormone and gently tap the cutting to remove excess hormone. Stick the cutting into the rooting medium at a depth of two-thirds the length of the cutting. Make sure at least three bud nodes are under the soil as this is where the roots develop. Gently firm the soil around the cutting to hold it in place.
Place the rooting tray in a warm area that has indirect sunlight. The top of a refrigerator is a good option if light is available. Monitor the soil moisture and mist with water to prevent it from drying out.
Monitor the cuttings for callus and root formation. The cuttings will begin to callus in approximately two weeks. The callus formation will stimulate root formation within several weeks. Gently pull on the cuttings to verify there is resistance from root growth.
Transplant the stem cuttings that have formed a callus and have the beginnings of root formation. Plant the cuttings directly into the permanent growing location at a depth of 1/2 the length of the cutting or singly in a container that is deeper than the rooting tray.
Apply a 16-16-16 fertilizer to the cuttings once the roots have formed. Water the cuttings to keep the soil moist as the roots continue to develop.