Many roses are grown through grafting one type of rose onto the roots of another type of rose. This type of propagation is popular because it creates new rose plants more quickly, and gives the new plant the beauty of one flower and the hardiness of a second type of flower. One of the most popular grafting forms is called budding.
Shield or T Budding
Shield budding consists of peeling a bud and a small sliver of wood from underneath, away from the parent plant, which is known as the scion. The bud is then attached to a branch of the host plant, which is also known as the rootstock. To attach the bud, the bark of the plant is partially peeled away in flaps. The flaps are cut in a T shape, which is why shield budding is sometimes known as T budding. The bud is then placed against the stem, and the flaps are closed over it. Budding tape is then wrapped around the flap to hold it closed. After the bud heals to the rootstock, the parent plant's branch above the bud can be cut away so that the bud is forced to grow in its place.
The most important thing to remember when grafting roses is to never let the surfaces of the rose dry out. A cut into the skin of the rose can dry in a matter of a few seconds. Once it dries, the cut surface will not heal when grafted. To prevent cut surfaces from drying out, many horticulturists take containers of water and place the cut ends of their buds into this water for transporting and storing. (Horticulturists who plan to graft their buds immediately often place the bud into their mouth to keep it fresh while they make their grafting cut.)
For budded roses to thrive, it's important to select a healthy rootstock that will support the rose. One of the most popular rootstocks for budding is known as Dr. Huey. This rootstock is one of the most common varieties used to grow roses because it adapts to many climates and will grow in size to accommodate the needs of the bud that it is being grafted to. Other roses used for rootstock include De La Grifferaie for standard tree roses and Multiflora for roses in climates with short growing seasons. In Florida, some horticulturists choose Fortuniana as a rootstock because it is a vigorous-growing rose. However, it is not a cold-tolerant plant, so it is not widely used outside of the state.