A water fountain is used as a garden accent or as a pond aerator. It can have a waterfall effect or spray water droplets into the air in different patterns. Water fountains consist of a reservoir, pump and fountain head.
All water fountains have a reservoir. This consists of a basin in which the water is stored and returns to when it completes the cycle. Reservoirs are waterproof and made of hard plastic or flexible rubber. The reservoir can be placed on a hard surface or buried in the ground. Self-contained fountains may have hidden reservoirs, while garden fountains may have an open reservoir in the shape of a pond.
A submersible pump is used to move the water through the cycle. An impeller draws the water in at a rapid speed. The water is forced out of the pump by centrifugal force. The pump is connected to a pipe that directs the water to the fountain head. Pumps are different sizes to accommodate the amount of water you are trying to move.
When the water reaches the fountain head, it has two options. If the fountain head is placed in a garden pond, the water cascades down a waterfall into the reservoir. Or the fountain head may be fitted with a nozzle that has a defined pattern that the water droplets spray from. These droplets aerate the water when it returns to the reservoir to complete the cycle.