Plant Parts & Their Functions

All plants have two groups of parts: the reproductive parts and the vegetative parts. Vegetative parts include all of the parts of the plant that do not play a role in the reproductive process, and the reproductive parts include all of the parts that do. Learning the parts of the plants as well as their functions can aide in learning how to identify plants.


Roots are ordinarily found beneath the ground attached to the bottom of a plant. The root is the first part of a plant to emerge from a seed, and is responsible for anchoring the plant into the ground and providing strength for the stem to emerge from the seed. The roots absorb nutrients and moisture from the soil and stores the nourishment for the embryo plant within the seed casing.


Stems emerge from seeds after the root has anchored itself into the soil. Many stems stand upright but some lie close to the ground and even under the ground. Stems are needed for the development of leaves and buds for flowering plants, and they carry moisture and nourishment from the roots to the rest of the plant parts.


Leaves grow from the stems of a plant and are often flat and shaped in a variety of ways. They are used by the plant to optimize the amount of sunlight the plant can get for proper growth.


Buds are juvenile, or undeveloped, flower shoots. The bud encases the undeveloped flower and keeps it safe from outside dangers while it grows. The buds often provide further nutrition to the flowers while they incubate.


Flowers emerge from buds and are often colorful and fragrant depending on the plant from which it is blooming. The purpose of a flower is reproductive in that they house seeds and the reproductive organs for pollination.


The fruit of a plant is the ripened ovary that contains the plant's seeds. When the seeds are completely developed, the ovary ripens and swells, becoming a fruit. When a fruit falls from the plant, or is pulled from it, the seeds within it are transported, where they can potentially be planted to become other plants.

Keywords: plant parts and functions, functions of plant parts, parts of a plant

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Chelsea Hoffman is a professional freelance writer with works published both on the Web and in print. She currently resides in Las Vegas. The author of the new series of horror novellas, titled "Fear Chronicles," her work can also be found on environmental websites like, where she helps spread environmental awareness with her mighty pen.