Organic gardening uses only natural soil augmentation, pest control and weed control techniques. Organic gardening methods tend to result in soil that is healthier over the long term. Organic gardening starts with fertilization. Organic fertilization usually results in healthy, strong plants that are less susceptible to pests and other problems.
One of the fundamental aspects of organic gardening is fertilizer choice. Organic fertilizers start as biodegradable plant or animal material. There are many choices for organic fertilizers. Compost acts both as a fertilizer and a mulch that slows evaporation from soil. Organic fertilizers originating from animals include both composted and uncomposted manure from cows, sheep, horses or chickens. Bone meal uses by products of animal and meat processing. Waste from fish processing is often made into a fish emulsion or fish meal. Kelp emulsion and meal, made from seaweed, offers many minerals and trace elements to improve the health of your organic garden.
Controlling weeds without dangerous chemicals in an organic garden isn't as difficult as it may seem. Using an organic mulch can help prevent weed growth and can add organic fertilizers to your garden. According to Science Daily, mulched maple and oak leaves reduce dandelion growth in grass. A heavy compost mulch in your vegetable garden will help discourage weed growth. If you end up with a few weeds, you can simply pull them and add them to your compost pile.
Controlling insect pests organically starts with keeping your soil and plants healthy. A healthy plant is less likely to have pest problems. If you have a pest infestation, add a predatory insect. For example, if your roses suffer an aphid infestation, add a pint of live ladybugs. Ladybugs are an aphid's natural predator. After a week or so of ladybugs feeding on aphids, your aphid problem should be reduced. In some cases, planting a particular plant near a plant that has a tendency toward a particular pest will discourage problems.