Seed-bearing plants, or spermatophytes, make up the majority of all plants. These plants flower and produce seeds that allow them to reproduce. There are thousands of varieties from the rose, tomato plants and all the way to the coniferous trees. They all have certain characteristics in common with one another that group them all together.
The most obvious of all characteristics is the seeds themselves. There are two different types of seeds. The flowering plants and fruits are referred to as angiosperms. These plants produce an actual seed that is needed for reproduction. The other type of seed-producing plant is the gymnosperm; they produce cones and spores for reproduction, such as the pine tree. Both of these types reproduce through sexual reproduction, meaning they have both a male and a female part.
Seed-bearing plants have a vascular system that allows the transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant structure. This vein structure is known as the xylem and phloem. The xylem is responsible for the transport of water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. The phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. This is one of the easiest ways to tell if the plant is a seed-bearing plant. Look for the veins in the leaves. If these are no veins, then the plant is not a seed-bearing plant. These veins are much like the veins in the human body. They carry the nutrients through the cell structure, maintain the health of the plant and allow them to grow to larger sizes.
The root system of a seed-bearing plant brings all of the veins together. It is these roots that spread out in the ground, under the plant, to reach the largest amount of food source and water. This provides the plant with the nutrients that it needs to grow. The roots also give the plant a sturdy foundation so that it remains strong against wind and other elements
Stems and Leaves
The stem of the plant houses the veins as they travel to the root system. They also provide the support for the leaves, which spread out to capture the rays of the sun. The leaves provide an important chemical reaction for the plant, it is the process of photosynthesis, which converts light energy to chemical energy and stores it in the bonds of sugar.