There are several hundred types of bamboo. They grow fast--up to 20 feet per season. Varieties can be divided into two categories, running and clumping. The running type spread their roots widely and can be very invasive. Clumping bamboo grows in more of a bush-like fashion. Instead of digging up and throwing away spreading bamboo, it's possible to replant it in another location. Bamboo is hardy and can survive the move, so long as you transplant it in the early spring or late fall. Never replant bamboo when it is shooting.
Dig up as much of the root system as possible, trying not to damage or cut the roots. The more that are intact, the easier the replanting will be.
Replant bamboo in a sunny location. If you live in the hottest of climates, consider a site that has some shade. This will give the bamboo protection from the searing sun.
Till the soil or use a garden hoe to loosen it up. Mix a rich, fairly loose topsoil into the top 12 inches of soil. The topsoil should have a high nitrogen content such as the kind with aged manure or compost in it.
Create a raised bed to encourage good drainage and rooting. Mix together enough of the topsoil and local soil until the bed is 6 to 12 inches higher than the surrounding ground. Allow the edge of taper off abruptly, to define the growing space.
Use a shovel to dig a hole twice as wide as the bamboo's root mass. The size depends on the size of the bamboo you're replanting. Put the plant in the hole, with the roots an inch or 2 below the soil surface.
Cover the bamboo with soil and pack it down. Add water until it's soaked. Make sure to continue watering to keep the roots moist for the two weeks.
Space bamboo out so they have room to spread. Make sure there is 3 to 5 feet of space in between.