When choosing flowers for flower pots, you'll need a plant designed for container gardening and one that will flower while root bound. Container flowers typically will be sold with a plant tag or marker showing they are for pots or containers.
Strawflower, or Bracteantha bracteata, is from the Asteraceae/Compositae, or aster/daisy, family. It is a short-lived perennial that is usually used as an annual. Leaves are 5 inches long and lance shaped while flowers are 2 inches wide in colors yellow, white, purple, pink, cream or bronze. The strawflower plant needs full sun and moist, well-drained soil. It may need staking to remain upright. Propagate via seed.
Calendula, or Calendula officinalis, is from the Asteraceae/Compositae, or aster/daisy, family. It is an annual that is fast growing and easy for a beginner. It will get 12 to 30 inches tall and the same in width. Bright green leaves are 4 inches long with 2- to 3-inch flowers. Colors for flowers are cream, yellow, orange or a blend of those colors. Plant calendula in average well-drained soil in sun to partial shade. Propagate via seed.
Angel Trumpet, or Brugmansia suaveolens, is from the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family. It is a perennial. Angel trumpet gets 6 to 15 feet tall with 10-inch long oval leaves. Flowers are trumpet shaped, fragrant and 12 inches long. Plant an angel trumpet in full sun with regular watering. Propagate via seed or semi-ripe cuttings in summer.
Pansy, or Viola x wittrockiana, is from the Violaceae, or violet, family. It is a perennial. Plants are 4 to 10 inches tall with 1- to 4-inch-wide flowers in a variety of colors. Foliage is deep green in color. Plant a pansy in any soil in sun or partial shade. Propagate via seed or by cuttings.
Petunias, or Petunia x hybrida, are from the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family. Petunias are a perennial that are grown as an annual. They are easy to grow for beginner gardeners. Flowers can get to 5 inches wide, and the plant can be in a variety of sizes and colors. Plant a petunia in bright sun and good soil with regular watering. Propagate via seed.