Mark out your garden plot. Be sure to chose an area that gets, if not full sun all day, at least sun for most of the day. Use the garden tiller to till up the area, tossing out any grass or weeds until you have dirt at a fine, powdery consistency.
Take a sampling of your dirt in a clean container to your local agricultural extension office or full-service garden center for a free testing. They will determine what your garden's pH levels are and help you decide what, if anything, needs to be added to give your garden a balanced nutrient-rich soil for growing. Generally, vegetables need a soil rich in magnesium, potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus to grow. Your extension office or garden center will help you find the fertilizer needed to get the right mixture. If your soil is already balanced, a good 1-1-1 ratio fertilizer or compost can be added to the tilling to boost the nutrient supply.
Plan your garden plot. Know what types of veggies you wish to grow and research the amount of room each needs to grow successfully. Corn, for example, is not usually recommended for backyard garden plots. Corn stalks produce just a few ears and take up a lot of nutrients. For the investment, you can purchase a lot more fresh corn from a farmer's market. Tomatoes, peppers, beans, peas, squash, carrots, onions, lettuce, cucumbers and radishes are just some of the easiest to grow for a starter gardener.
Sow early seeds, such as onions and carrots, in mid-spring. Using a hoe, dig a trench and plant seeds in a row. Mark your row with a stake at each end and label, if desired. When seeds start to sprout, thin out as instructed on the seed packaging.
Plant seedling plants after the threat of frost has passed in mid-to-late spring. Tomatoes, depending on the variety, need 2 to 4 feet between plants to grow. Peppers need slightly less.
Sow later seeds such as cucumbers, beans and peas when you plant your seedlings. Using a trellis to grow sprawling plants like these will maximize your space and keep your veggies healthier.