In tropical climates, banana trees can grow year round. In cool and cold climates, banana trees will die out at the end of the season. Bananas grow fast, so if you are a cool- or cold-climate gardener, you can simply plant new banana trees in the spring. When you order banana plants from a nursery or plant supplier, they should have a stalk that is between 2 and 6 inches in diameter. The outside leaves are almost always removed; after planting, you should see new growth unfurl from the center in a week to 10 days. In the short growing season of northern climates, banana trees will not produce fruit; however, the long, flag-like green leaves are beautiful on their own.
Chose a planting mixture that will drain well. Garden stores sell premixed potting soil that is specifically formulated for plants that require good drainage.
Fill a 6 to 8 inch pot with planting mixture. Your pot must have several large drainage holes in the bottom. If water sits around the roots, they will rot and the plant will die.
Make a shallow hollow in your planting mixture slightly larger and deeper then the roots of the banana tree.
Place the banana tree in the planting pot so that the roots and 1 inch of the stalk are covered.
Press down gently on the potting soil around the base of the banana tree. You want to secure the new tree in the soil without compacting the dirt around the roots.
Sprinkle a little fertilizer on the soil around the base of the tree and water thoroughly. Use a balanced fertilizer that has equal parts nitrogen, potassium and potash.
Place your newly planted banana tree in a place where it will get the most light; 12 hours of sunlight a day is optimal.
Bananas need warm temperatures. The evening temperature should not drop below 67 degrees and the daytime temperature should be in the 80s. If you live in a climate that is prone to cold nights, bring your banana indoors or keep it in a greenhouse.
After a few days, check the dampness of the soil. When it dries out to a depth of one-half inch, fertilize lightly and water. To check the depth of the moisture, press your finger into the soil.
Move your banana tree to a bigger pot or into the ground when it is beginning to look crowded in the planting pot.