Lucky bamboo isn't actually bamboo at all; it's a member of the Dracaena family. It's a hardy houseplant that grows well in a range of conditions as long as you don't give it too much sun. Lucky bamboo tends to thrive while root bound, but every couple of years you may need to transplant it to a larger container. Be alert for signs of stress, such as yellowing leaves or failure to thrive, that signal it's time to transplant your pseudo-bamboo.
Grasp the lucky bamboo stems with one hand and its container with the other. Gently up-end the container over a wide bowl or plate. Lift the container away from the bamboo stems slowly while you support the bamboo stems with your other hand. You may need to work the stems back and forth gently to help encourage them to come out. Small stones may come out of the container; the plate or bowl is there to catch them.
Trim away any of the lucky bamboo plant's roots that are mushy or otherwise diseased and discard. This is also a good opportunity to peel away any yellowed leaves and trim away any dead, brown leaves and stems.
Place the lucky bamboo stems in a new container that is about 2 inches wider than the last one. Fill with pebbles to help stabilize the stems; you can reuse the pebbles from the old container, but give them a good rinse in running water first. Pile the pebbles no higher than the bamboo's root level.
Fill the new container with water up to the bamboo's current root level. If you overfill the water above the current root line, your bamboo will put out excessive roots in response to the water.
Place your newly transplanted lucky bamboo back where it came from and care for it as usual.