Although growing peonies from seed is the most difficult way to start a new peony bush, it can also be the most rewarding. It's a task for patient gardeners, because the new peony bushes won't produce blooms for at least three to five years. Gathering peony seeds isn't difficult. Just watch for the development of the seed pods, which grow in decorative star-shaped clusters.
Allow several healthy peony blooms to wilt and die naturally on the plant at the end of the growing season. The bloom will be replaced by a seed pod.
Watch for the pods to turn from green to brown. When they turn brown and hard, they will begin to open and you will be able to see the round shiny seeds inside.
Cut off the pods and drop them into a paper sack. Put the paper sack in a dry place for several days, or until the pods are completely dry.
Pour the peony pods out onto a flat surface, and separate the seeds from the bits of pods and any other leaves or debris. If any pods haven't already split, open them and remove the seeds.
Put the seeds in a regular paper envelope. Store the seeds in a dry, dark place until you're ready to use them.