Understand the Process
In order to have the most success in your flower-growing endeavors, it's helpful to learn about some of the basic botanical processes that occur in seed germination. When you understand how a flower grows from a seed, you will be prepared for gardening success.
Seeds must have the proper conditions for germination to occur. The seeds must be fresh and healthy. The soil must be high quality, and should be able to drain water away properly. Planting the seed at the proper depth is important as well. After planting, keeping the seeds adequately moist and warm is crucial. Some seeds need light to germinate and others require darkness.
Monocots and Dicots
Flowering plants are divided into two groups---monocots and dicots. The differences between these two plant groups are vast and there are exceptions to the classification rules, which makes it confusing to some gardeners. The most widely recognized difference is the number of cotyledons present in both groups. Monocots have one cotyledon and dicots have two cotyledons. Cotyledons are the first leaves that grow on an emerging seedling. These cotyledons are the way the new seedlings absorb nutrients until the first true leaves grow and the seedling begins the process of photosynthesis.
When a gardener succeeds in providing the proper environment for seeds to germinate, enzymes within the flower seed awaken. The job of the enzymes is to change the carbohydrates stored in the endosperm into sugars that the embryo can use to germinate and grow. The embryo grows first within the seed coat and then eventually splits the seed coat open with the force of the growth.
When the radicle bursts forth from the embryo and anchors itself into the soil as the newly-forming root system, the technical process of germination has occurred. From this point, the new seedling will grow and thrive if the conditions are optimal. Once the radicle emerges from the seed coat, the embryo will be able to absorb water and minerals from the soil to feed the germinating seed. The tip of the newly-forming stem will grow up from the radicle and emerge out of the soil.
After the seedling emerges from the soil, the cotyledon(s) will absorb nutrients for the seedling while the plant continues to grow. Once the true leaves appear on the seedling, the new flower seedling will continue to grow and develop until the flower eventually buds and blossoms.