Cook broccoli florets in large pot of boiling salted water until just tender, about 6 minutes. Using slotted spoon, transfer broccoli to colander and drain. Add pasta to same pot of water and cook until tender but still firm to bite. Drain pasta; reserve 3/4 cup cooking liquid. Return pasta to same pot.
With processor running, drop pine nuts and garlic through feed tube and chop finely. Scrape down sides of work bowl. Add broccoli, 1/4 cup reserved cooking liquid, oil, vinegar and crushed red pepper; process to coarse puree. Pour sauce over pasta; toss over medium-low heat until heated through, adding remaining cooking liquid as needed if necessary if sauce is too thick. Season with salt and pepper. Serve, passing cheese separately.