Almost any vegetable can be grown in a pot. It's the size of the pot that is important. Planting vegetables in pots, also referred to as container gardening, can be a solution for gardeners with limited outdoor space. Apartment dwellers can grow vegetables on a sunny balcony, for instance, making it easy to step outside to pick a fresh tomato for dinner. Containers need to have drain holes and be of a suitable size.
The bush category of vegetables includes above-ground plants that grow from a single stem or stalk. Lettuce, bush beans and corn can be grown in a container that's 8 to 10 inches deep. Plant the corn in a long container, like those used as flower boxes, so you can plant three stalks in the same container for cross pollination. Eggplant and peppers need a pot that's 16 inches deep. Plant broccoli in a pot at least 20 inches deep.
Radishes and green onions can grow in a container as shallow as 6 inches. Carrots, beets, onions and turnips will need a pot that's 10 to 12 inches deep. Potatoes can also be grown in a container from seed potatoes (not the potatoes you get at the market). A large container, like a trash can or even a trash bag, can be used to grow potatoes.
Vegetables growing from vines need to be tied to a vertical support, like a trellis or balcony railing. Peas and cucumbers will grow best in a 16-inch pot. Use a container at least 24 inches deep for tomatoes, as they need room to spread roots to nourish a wide expanse of limbs that will produce tomatoes in bunches.