If you live in an area with harsh winters, you may miss the fresh herbs you can plant outdoors during the more temperate times of years. While not all food plants grow well indoors without complicated hydroponic or aeroponic systems, herbs are simple. If you have a south-facing window with an unobstructed view, you can have plentiful fresh herbs no matter the weather outside. The most important thing to know about growing herbs indoors is that they'll have enough light to stay healthy.
Choose herbs that will do well in an indoor environment. Some varieties of herbs will do better than others; some may even be specially engineered to grow well indoors. Look for these when possible if starting from seed. Basil, thyme, rosemary and oregano are all excellent candidates. As a rule, cilantro and dill do not do very well indoors.
Plant your seeds or transplant existing plants from your outdoor garden. To do this, fill your pots with potting soil. Read the directions on the seed packet for proper seed depth and spacing. If you are transplanting existing plants, dig a hole that is deeper than the root ball you dug up out of your garden. Place the transplanted plant in the hole and cover the roots completely with potting soil. Use enough soil that the plant will stand up easily on its own.
Place the pots in a window that gets excellent sunlight. While herbs vary in light needs, most of them prefer full sun or only partial shade. South-facing windows are your best bet, with east and west being next best.
Fertilize your herbs as needed. Because pots are such small areas, your herbs will quickly ingest all the nutrition contained in the soil and you will need to replenish that nutrition often. Herb plants vary in nutritional needs, so check sites such as Fine Gardening and the Royal Horticultural Society to find fertilizer needs for your specific herbs.