Olive trees originate from the Mediterranean region and have been grown for their fruit for more than 5,000 years, according to "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees of the Americas" by Tony Russell, Catherine Cutler and Martin Walters. Grown successfully throughout England to the point of becoming a commercial crop, olive trees are surprisingly hardy in the cold weather and some cultivars even need a chill requirement to produce fruit. Olive trees grown in England include the cipressino, the manzanillo and the frantoio.
The Cipressino Olive Tree
The cipressino tree is native to Puglia in the "heel" of Italy. The tree grows in an upright column, according to the Big Plant Nursery. The tree is sterile and needs a pollinator. The spear-shaped leaves are dark green and gray. The tree produces black olives during mid-November through mid-December. The olives are used to make fine, light olive oil.
The Manzanilla Olive Tree
The manzanilla olive is originally from Andalucia, Spain. The tree grows to a height of 30 to 35 feet and has a moderate canopy spread, according to "Olive Production Manual" by G. Steven Sibbett and Louise Ferguson. The tree is resistant to cold temperatures during the dormant season, having a chill requirement to produce olives. The tree is sterile and needs a pollinator to produce fruit. The tree's olives are green and are used as table olives.
The Frantoio Olive Tree
The frantoio olive tree is native to Tuscany, Italy. The tree grows to a height of 30 feet and has semi-drooping branches, according to "Producing Table Olives" by Stan Kailis and David Harris. Self-fertile, the frantoio is used as a pollinator for other olive trees. The spear-shaped leaves are dark green with a tint of gray. The olives, which ripen when they turn green and purple, are used as table olives and have a nutty flavor.