Potatoes are cool season vegetables. Potatoes are not the roots of the potato plant, but an energy storage device called a tuber. Soil temperatures of 60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit are ideal for potato growth. Potato plants tolerate light frosts in the spring and fall. Most potatoes are planted in March or early April after the soil is workable. For a late crop of potatoes, plant them by the first of July. It takes 100 to 120 days for full growth of potatoes. A 10-foot row will produce 6 to 15 pounds of potatoes.
Remove the weeds, grass, brush and debris from a planting site located in full sun exposure. Loosen the soil up to the depth of 12 inches with a shovel. Remove buried rocks and root masses.
Spread 2 inches of peat moss on top of the soil. If your soil contains an abundant amount of clay, then add 2 to 4 inches of sand. Work the soil amendments in with a shovel or rototiller. Rake the soil smooth.
Create a 3- to 5-inch deep row 10 feet long with the edge of a garden hoe. Create the rest of your rows 24 inches apart so the shade from the potato plants will keep the soil cool. Sprinkle 1 tbsp. of 10-20-0 fertilizer per 10 foot row in the bottom of the furrows.
Cut your seed potatoes into 1 1/2 to 2 ounce or 1 1/2 inch cubes with a sharp knife. Check to make sure that there is at least one good eye or bud per piece. Whole small potatoes can be used as well. The seed potatoes need to be firm to the touch and unsprouted.
Place a potato piece in the row with the cut side facing down every 10 to 12 inches apart. Cover the potatoes with soil. Sprinkle the area with water until the soil is wet to the touch.