Any soil type can grow something. Desert plants are adapted to dry, nutrient-poor sandy soils. Other plants will tolerate quite dense clay. Some soil types, however, are more adaptable than others. If you have good soil, you will be able to grow a wide variety of plants without making any large alterations to your dirt.
According to BBC News, loam is the perfect soil. Loam is composed of a balance of small, medium and large particles. That keeps it well-drained and well-aerated like sandy soils, but also moist like silt and clay. It warms up quickly in the spring but does not lose all its moisture in the summer.
Silty soil is high in medium sized particles. Most of its grains are smaller particles than sand, but larger than clay. Silt retains moisture quite well, but drains much better than clay. It also is easier to cultivate than clay, which can turn into a dense, impenetrable mass after it gets wet. It stays wet better than sand and contains plenty of nutrients, which sand doesn't.
Peaty soils contain a lot of undecayed plant matter, making them fertile. Unfortunately, they are usually fairly acidic, which stops organic matter from breaking down and prevents plants from taking advantage of the nutrients. Fortunately, they can be vastly improved by adding some lime to take down the acidity, making peat ideal for many plants.