Although many plants adapt well to growing indoors, vegetables do not seem like ideal houseplants--even though many gardeners have successfully grown herbs indoors throughout the winter. But you can garden year-round by moving vegetables indoors in containers and utilizing grow lights to supplement the plant's light requirements.
Plant dwarf or miniature varieties of plants for easy maintenance in the home. Miniature tomato plants such as micro-tom or micro-gold may produce plants that are only 6 inches tall. These plants can be grown in smaller containers on a countertop or window sill.
Match the properly-sized container to your plant. A vine such as the watermelon or muskmelon may require a 5-gallon container, while radishes will grow well in a container that is at least 6 inches wide and 4 inches deep.
Mix a homemade potting soil for your container vegetables that contains one part compost, 1/2 part well-rotted manure, one part sand and one part peat moss. Never use dirt in your containers. It will contain microbes and nematodes that can burn the roots of a plant when placed in a container.
Fertilize regularly with a granulated, balanced fertilizer (10-10-10).
Place cool white fluorescent lights that produce 2,850 lumens per bulb 3 to 4 inches above your plants.
Water your plants as needed. The soil for vegetables should remain as damp as a wrung-out sponge.