Although most gardeners grow vegetables exclusively during the summer months, several types of vegetables grow throughout the entire year. Unlike annual vegetables, perennial vegetables continuing growing during the winter months in warmer climates and in protected locations in cool climates. Even without a greenhouse, some vegetables can be grown year-round. With proper protection from summer heat, some cool-season vegetables grow during the winter and summer. Plant some appetizing varieties of vegetables to enjoy fresh produce throughout the year.
Many types of root vegetables grow throughout the year. Onions, parsnips, beets and carrots continue growing during the winter with a little help in chilly areas. These vegetables stay warm under a layer of soil beneath the winter snow. Increase the warmth by adding 5 or 6 inches of organic mulch before the onset of freezing temperatures. Continue harvesting these root vegetables when the weather turns chilly by pulling back a little mulch and removing the fresh produce from the soil. Replace the mulch to protect the remaining vegetables until ready to eat. Continue to eat these in early spring after the soil thaws, before other vegetables begin to grow.
Tasty salad greens, such as leaf lettuce, arugula and spinach grow throughout the year in the vegetable garden. Rake the leaves from nearby trees to use as a thick layer of mulch over these leafy vegetables. Pile the leaves over the exposed plants before the beginning of winter to enjoy these vegetables the following spring. Harvest mature cabbages in the fall by cutting the ripe heads away from the remainder of the plants. Leave these stumps in the soil to enjoy newly sprouted cabbages the next spring.
These interesting perennial vegetables begin manufacturing edible produce during the second year of growth. Foliage and roots form during the first year of growth. The flowering part of this plant contains the edible portion. Harvest these buds for culinary purposes before they mature and blossom into purple flowers.