Although the beauty and fragrance of many flowers make them seem designed for decoration, flowers are actually specially adapted organs that the blooms use to reproduce. Everything from the decorous shape to the delicate aroma of a bloom is necessary for its survival.
The stamen or androecium is the male component of a flower. It consists of the style, or filament, and the anther. The filament is just that: a thin filament holding the anther. The anther holds pollen, which the University of Illinois Extension refers to as the "male reproductive cells." The pollen are designed to come off easily when a pollinator, such as a bee or a moth, bumps into them. The pollinator can then carry the pollen to other flowers.
The pistil is the female reproductive part of a flowering plant. The pistil consists of the stigma, the style and the ovary. The style is a long, thin member similar to the filament, which holds the stigma above the ovary. When a pollinator bumps into the stigma, he may rub pollen off on it. If he does, it will stick to the stigma. The plant will grow a tube down the style to the ovary, which houses the female reproductive cells, the ovules. Pollen cells will fertilize one or more ovules, which will develop into seeds or fruits over the season.
Although the petals are not part of the actual reproductive process, they are the reason it occurs in the first place. Petals are designed to lure pollinators to the flower. The petals of a particular flower are specially adapted to attract one or more particular species of pollinator. The petals may have a particular color scheme attractive to a certain insect or bat, a type of pollen on which the pollinator feeds, or a scent to attract the pollinator. Some flower petals also have particular shapes designed to attract one pollinator species. For example, some flowers have long, trumpet-shaped petals that only allow hummingbirds to feed on their pollen.