Although there are many ways to procreate, or propagate, bamboo, dividing your bamboo is a very reliable method that works with all bamboo varieties, whether clumping bamboo or the more invasive types that propagate primarily by runners. Propagating your bamboo is not difficult. The process is similar for both potted bamboos and bamboos growing in the ground.
Dig up the bamboo to be divided for propagation. If you are working with bamboo in the ground, dig up the bamboo by digging down 2 to 3 feet to ensure that you get plenty of rhizomes (underground stems that store food) for propagation.
Divide your bamboo into several bunches. On some species of bamboo, the rhizomes will break easily. You may need to cut other varieties with a knife of pruning shears. If you are working with potted bamboo, divide your bamboo into two pieces. If working with bamboo in the ground, divide your bamboo into a minimum of a "1 gallon" size for transplanting.
Prepare your bamboo's new location. If your bamboo is potted, add potting soil to the new pot and plant the bamboo division in the pot. Replant the other portion of the bamboo in the original pot. When planting outside in the ground, install any needed bamboo barriers before planting your divided bamboo. Some varieties, especially some bamboo that propagate via long runners, can be invasive. If you are dividing one of those types, you may benefit from a plastic bamboo barrier that goes down at least 3 feet.
Water the newly planted bamboo thoroughly.
Mulch the newly planted bamboo to keep the moisture in the soil. Water your bamboo whenever the top 1/2 inch of soil feels dry.