Lunar planting has been a method of gardening since before written history. People figured out that certain plants grew much better when they were planted at certain times during the cycle of the moon. The ocean tides respond to the phases of the moon. The gravitational pull of the moon causes the tide to ebb and flow. It also causes the water in the earth to do the same. Plants absorb more water during certain phases of the moon and because of this they grow larger and there is more to harvest.
The moon has four phases each lasting seven days. The first two phases are when the moon is waxing. This means it is increasing from new moon to full moon. The last two phases are when the moon is waning or decreasing. When the moon is on the increase the naked eye can see that is getting bigger and bigger from that crescent in the sky to the full moon. When it is waning it can be seen as getting smaller until all you can see is that little slip of the crescent moon.
The gravitational pull is very strong during the first phase. Crops that grow above ground should be planted during this first phase. Plant green leafy vegetables like lettuce, broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower. Plant annual flowers during this time too. These are the flowers that die with a winter frost and do not come back the next year. That would be begonias, impatiens, snapdragons, geraniums, petunias, etc. This is also a good time to take cuttings from flowers.
The gravitational pull is still strong, but not as strong as during the first phase. During this phase leaf growth occurs. This is the time to plant crops that grow above the ground and have seeds that will form inside the fruit. These crops are beans, peas, squash, zucchini, melons, peppers and tomatoes. Plants that have canes should be planted in this phase as well. That would include roses and raspberries or blackberries. Plant any time during this phase, but the best time to plant is two days before the full moon.
Now the gravitational pull is starting to decrease and energy is given to the roots of plants. Therefore, the plants that grow and mature underground should be planted during the third phase of the moon. Plant beets, potatoes, onions, carrots and radishes. This is a perfect time to transplant perennial flowers or the ones that come back year after year. Plants that grow from bulbs do better when planted during this phase. The third phase is best for pruning trees, flowers and other plants because the energy is concentrated in the roots and not in the leaves or fruits. Mulch during the third phase to protect the underground growth of plants.
This is the easy phase and the one where little energy is expended. This is the resting period for all plants. The only thing that need be done during the fourth phase of the moon is to harvest the fruits of your labor. A bit of pruning can be done here as well but try to keep things as calm as possible for your plants during this phase of the moon.