Potatoes are a cool-season vegetable that grows best when the soil temperatures are between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. They're generally planted in late March or early April, though some late varieties can be planted in early July. The simplest way to plant potatoes is to use small whole seed potatoes, which can be purchased from your local nursery. Whole seed potatoes are the most predictably successful because they are self-contained and generally untainted by human error and environmental issues.
Use a hand tiller to aerate the top eight to nine inches of soil in the garden bed. Remove any debris from the dirt that could make it difficult for the potatoes to expand and grow, such as rocks and roots.
Dig holes that are about twice the size of the whole seed potatoes, spacing them 10 to 12 inches apart. Space the rows 24 to 36 inches apart to give the plants room to spread.
Drop a seed potato into each hole, smoothing the dirt over the top. Cover each row with a ridge of soil that's one to three inches high.
Water the potato plants lightly so that the ground is just damp.